Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-10-13

Systematic position of Bombyx incomposita (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), with notes on its immature biology and hostplant association

Department of Life Science, C307, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88 Tingzhou Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei, 116, Taiwan, R. O. C. 2
Department of Life Science, C307, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88 Tingzhou Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei, 116, Taiwan, R. O. C.
Department of Life Science, C307, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88 Tingzhou Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei, 116, Taiwan, R. O. C.
Lepidoptera Bombyx incomposita DNA barcode Life history molecular phylogeny Morus

Abstract

The immature stages, morphology, and systematic position of Bombyx incomposita (van Eecke, 1929) are reported. The morphology of larva was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, and the phylogeny was inferred using six genes (COI, CAD, EF-1α, GAPDH, RpS5, and wgl). The molecular phylogeny strongly supported that B. incomposita is sister to B. huttoni Westwood, 1847. The divergence of the COI barcode, phylogenetic reconstruction, and difference in immature stages support the current classification, in which the species incomposita belongs to the genus Bombyx. We give illustrations of male and female genitalia and briefly discuss the utility of the chaetotaxy of the first instar larvae on taxonomy of silkmoths. The SV group bears six setae in B. mandarina, but eight in B. incomposita. The L1 bears three setae in Rotunda, but just single seta in Bombyx.

 

References

  1. Berg, C.C., Corner, E.J.H. & Jarrett, F.M. (2006) Flora Malesiana, Series 1: Volume 17, Part 1: Moraceae—Genera other than Ficus. National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden, 154 pp.
    Drury, D. (1782) Illustrations of natural history. Wherein are exhibited upwards of two hundred and forty figures of exotic insects, according to their different genera. Vol. 3. Printed for the author and sold by B. White, London, 28 pp.
    Freitas, A.V.L. & Brown Jr., K.S. (2004) Phylogeny of the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera). Systematic Biology, 53 (3), 363–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150490445670
    Goldsmith, M.R., Shimada, T. & Abe, H. (2005) The genetics and genomics of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Annual Review Entomology, 50, 71–100. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.50.071803.130456
    Hamilton, C.A., St Laurent, R.A., Dexter, K., Kitching, I.J., Breinholt, J.W., Zwick, A., Timmermans, M.J.T.N., Barber, J.R. & Kawahara, A.Y. (2019) Phylogenomics resolves major relationships and reveals significant diversification rate shifts in the evolution of silk moths and relatives. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19 (1), 182. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-019-1505-1
    Hebert, P.D.N., Penton, E.H., Burns, J.M., Janzen, D.H. & Hallwachs, W. (2004) Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101 (41), 14812 LP – 14817. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0406166101
    Hinton, H.E. (1946) On the homology and nomenclature of the setae of lepidopterous larvae, with some notes on the phylogeny of the lepidoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 97 (1), 1–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1946.tb00372.x
    Holloway, J.D. (1987). The moths of Borneo, Part 3: Superfamily Bombycoidea: families Lasiocampidae, Eupterotidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 199 pp.
    Hutton, T. (1864) XIV.: On the Reversion and Restoration of the Silkworm (Part II.); with Distinctive Characters of Eighteen Species of Silk-producing Bombycidæ. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 12 (4), 295–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1864.tb00108.x
    Jin, H., Seki, T., Yamaguchi, J. & Fujiwara, H. (2019) Prepatterning of Papilio xuthus caterpillar camouflage is controlled by three homeobox genes: clawless, abdominal-A, and Abdominal-B. Science Advances, 5 (4), eaav7569. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav7569
    Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16 (2), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01731581
    Kitching, I.J. (1984) The use of larval chaetotaxy in butterfly systematics, with special reference to the Danaini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Systematic Entomology, 9 (1), 49–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1984.tb00500.x
    Kitching, I.J., Rougerie, R., Zwick, A., Hamilton, C.A., St. Laurent, R.A., Naumann, S., Ballesteros Mejia, L. & Kawahara, A.Y. (2018) A global checklist of the Bombycoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Biodiversity Data Journal, 6, e22236. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.6.e22236
    Lanfear, R., Frandsen, P.B., Wright, A.M., Senfeld, T. & Calcott, B. (2016) PartitionFinder 2: new methods for selecting partitioned models of evolution for molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 34 (3), 772–773. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw260
    Latreille, P.A. (1802) Histoire Naturelle, Générale Et Particulière Des Crustacés Et Des Insectes. Nouvelle Édition. L'Imprimerie de F. Dufart, Paris, pp. 404–406.
    Lemaire, C. & Minet, J. (1999) The Bombycoidea and their Relatives. In: Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, pp. 333.
    Lemée, C.L.P. (1950) The family Bombycidae. In: Contribution à l'étude des Lepidoptères du Haut-Tonkin (Nord-Vietnam) et de Saigon. Libraries Lechevalier, Paris, pp. 37.
    Lin, R.-J., Braby, M.F. & Hsu, Y.-F. (2019) The Immature Stages, Biology, and Phylogenetic Relationships of Rotunda rotundapex (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Journal of Insect Science, 19 (2). [published onlin] https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iez025
    Linnæus, C. (1758) Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, Reformata, Holmiæ, 824 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542
    Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceeding of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE). IEEE, New Orleans, LA, pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1109/GCE.2010.5676129
    Miyata, T. & Kishida, Y. (1990) Description of a new species of the genus Bombyx Linnaeus (Bombycidae) from Taiwan. Japan Heterocerists' Journal, 158, 142–143.
    Moore, F. (1859) s.n. In: A catalogue of the lepidopterous insects in the museum of the natural history. The East-India House. Vol. 2. W.H. Allen and Co., London, pp. 381–382.
    Moore, F. (1872) Descriptions of new Indian Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1872, 555–586.
    Nielsen, M.E. & Mappes, J. (2020) Out in the open: behavior’s effect on predation risk and thermoregulation by aposematic caterpillars. Behavioral Ecology, 31 (4), 1031–1039. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/araa048
    Park, K.-T. & Sohn, J.-C. (2002) Description of Bombyx shini sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Bombycidae) from Korea. Tinea, 17 (2), 67–69.
    Rambaut, A. (2016) Figtree. Version 1.4.3. Available from: http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/ (accessed 26 September 2021)
    Rambaut, A., Drummond, A.J., Xie, D., Baele, G. & Suchard, M.A. (2018) Posterior summarization in Bayesian phylogenetics using Tracer 1.7. Systematic Biology, 67 (5), 901–904. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syy032
    Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology, 61 (3), 539–542. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029
    Rougerie, R. & Estradel, Y. (2008) Morphology of the preimaginal stages of the African emperor moth Bunaeopsis licharbas (Maassen and Weyding): Phylogenetically informative characters within the Saturniinae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Journal of Morphology, 269 (2), 207–232. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10562
    Savigny, J.-C. (1816) Mémoires sur les animaux sans vertèbres. Vol. 2. Chez Deterville, Paris, pp. 31–32. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9154
    Skelhorn, J., Rowland, H.M. & Ruxton, G.D. (2010) The evolution and ecology of masquerade. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 99 (1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01347.x
    Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics, 30 (9), 1312–1313. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033
    Stehr, F.W. (1987) s.n. In: Immature Insects. Kendall. Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, pp.288–305.
    Stevens, M. & Ruxton, G.D. (2011) Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279 (1728), 417–426. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.1932
    Suzuki, T.N. & Sakurai, R. (2015) Bent posture improves the protective value of bird dropping masquerading by caterpillars. Animal Behaviour, 105, 79–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.04.009
    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30 (12), 2725–2729. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197
    van Eecke, R. (1929) De Heterocera van Sumatra VI. Zoologische Mededelingen, 12 (6), 28–136.
    Verdú, J.R., Galante, E., Lumaret, J.-P. & Cabrero-Sañudo, F.J. (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of Geotrupidae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) based on larvae. Systematic Entomology, 29 (4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6970.2004.00256.x
    Westwood, J.O. (1848) The cabinet of oriental entomology : being a selection of some of the rarer and more beautiful species of insects, natives of India and the adjacent islands, the greater portion of which are now for the first time discribed and figured. William Smith, London, 26 pp. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.1932
    Wahlberg, N. & Wheat, C.W. (2008) Genomic outposts serve the phylogenomic pioneers: designing novel nuclear markers for genomic DNA extractions of Lepidoptera. Systematic Biology, 57 (2), 231–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150802033006
    Wang, X., Chen, Z.M., Gu, X.S., Wang, M., Huang, G.H. & Zwick, A. (2019) Phylogenetic relationships among Bombycidae s.l. (Lepidoptera) based on analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. Systematic Entomology, 44 (3), 490–498. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12337
    Wang, X., Wang, M., Zolotuhin, V.V., Hirowatari, T., Wu, S. & Huang, G.-H. (2015) The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands. Zootaxa, 3989 (1), 1–138. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3989.1.1
    Xia, Q.Y., Guo, Y.R., Zhang, Z., Li, D., Xuan, Z.L., Li, Z., Dai, F.Y., Li, Y.R., Cheng, D.J., Li, R.Q., Cheng, T.C., Jiang, T., Becquet, C., Xu, X., Liu, C., Zha, X.F., Fan, W., Lin, Y., Shen, Y.H., Jiang, L., Jensen, J., Hellmann, I., Tang, S., Zhao, P., Xu, H.F., Yu, C., Zhang, G.J., Li, J., Cao, J.J., Liu, S.P., He, N.J., Zhou, Y., Liu, H., Zhao, J., Ye, C., Du, Z.H., Pan, G.Q., Zhao, A.C., Shao, H.J., Zeng, W., Wu, P., Li, C.F., Pan, M.H., Li, J.J., Yin, X.Y., Li, D.W., Wang, J., Zheng, H.S., Wang, W., Zhang, X.Q., Li, S.G., Yang, H.M., Lu, C., Nielsen, R., Zhou, Z.Y., Wang, J., Xiang, Z.H. & Wang, J. (2009) Complete resequencing of 40 genomes reveals domestication events and genes in silkworm (Bombyx). Science, 326 (5951), 433–436.
    Yukuhiro, K., Sezutsu, H., Itoh, M., Shimizu, K. & Banno, Y. (2002) Significant Levels of Sequence Divergence and Gene Rearrangements have Occurred Between the Mitochondrial Genomes of the Wild Mulberry Silkmoth, Bombyx mandarina, and its Close Relative, the Domesticated Silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19 (8), 1385–1389. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004200
    Zolotuhin, V.V. & Witt, T.J. (2009) The Bombycidae of Vietnam. Entomofauna, 16, 231–272.
    Zwick, A. (2008) Molecular phylogeny of Anthelidae and other bombycoid taxa (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea). Systematic Entomology, 33 (1), 190–209. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2007.00410.x
    Zwick, A., Regier, J.C., Mitter, C. & Cummings, M.P. (2011) Increased gene sampling yields robust support for higher-level clades within Bombycoidea (Lepidoptera). Systematic Entomology, 36 (1), 31–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00543.x

  2.  

How to Cite

LIN, R.-J. ., LIN, Y.-C. ., & HSU, Y.-F. . (2021). Systematic position of <em>Bombyx</em> <em>incomposita</em> (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), with notes on its immature biology and hostplant association. Zootaxa, 5052(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5052.1.5