Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2021-11-11
Page range: 429-438
Abstract views: 594
PDF downloaded: 31

First report of Ceratomyxa scorpaeni (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from Scorpaena porcus in the Black Sea

Sinop University, Faculty of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57000, Sinop, Turkey 2Kocaeli University, Faculty of Agriculture, 41285, Kocaeli, Turkey
Ordu University, Fatsa Faculty of Marine Sciences, 52400, Fatsa-Ordu, Turkey
Ordu University, Fatsa Faculty of Marine Sciences, 52400, Fatsa-Ordu, Turkey
A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, 2 Nakhimov av., 299011 Sevastopol, Crimea
Sinop University, Faculty of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57000, Sinop, Turkey
Cnidaria Myxozoa Ceratomyxa scorpaeni Scorpaena porcus Black Sea


Members of the class Myxosporea Bütschli, 1881 have a cosmopolitan distribution in a wide variety of fish species worldwide. In the present study, the black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus collected from the Sinop coasts of the Black Sea was investigated for myxosporean parasites using both conventional and molecular methods in the period between September 2015 and August 2019. Using morphological and morphometric data, the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa scorpaeni Garbouj, Rangel, Castro, Hmissi, Santos, Bahri, 2016 was identified in the gall bladder of host fish. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA gene confirmed the identity of this parasite as C. scorpaeni. This is the first report of its occurrence in the Black Sea.



  1. Abdel-Baki, A.A., Mansour, L., Al-Qahtani, H.A., Al-Omar, S.Y. & Al-Quraishy, S. (2015) Morphology, seasonality and phylogenetic relationships of Ceratomyxa husseini n. sp. from the gall-bladder of Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Ruppell) (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Arabian Gulf off Saudi Arabia. Systematic Parasitology, 91, 91–99.
    Akaike, H. (1974) A new look at statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19, 716–723.
    Alama-Bermejo, G., Raga, J.A. & Holzer, A.S. (2011) Host-parasite relationship of Ceratomyxa puntazzi n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) and sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum, 1792) from the Mediterranean with first data on ceratomyxid host specificity in sparids. Veterinary Parasitology, 182, 181–192.
    Bartošová, P., Fiala, I. & Hypša, V. (2009) Concatenated SSU and LSU rDNA data confrm the main evolutionary trends within myxosporeans (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) and provide an effective tool for their molecular phylogenetics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 53, 81–93.
    Eck, R.V. & Dayhoff, M.O. (1966) Atlas of protein sequence and structure. Vol.2. National Biomedical Research Foundation, Silver Spring, 215 pp.
    Efron, B. (1982) The jackknife, the bootstrap and other resampling plans. Vol. 1. CBMS-NSF Regional conference series in applied mathematics, Philadelphia, 38, 1–103.
    Eiras, J.C. (2006) Synopsis of the species of Ceratomyxa Thelohan, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae). Systematic Parasitology, 65, 49–71.
    Eiras, J.C., Cruz, C. & Saraiva, A. (2018) Synopsis of the species of Ceratomyxa Thelohan, 1892 (Cnidaria, Myxosporea, Ceratomyxidae) described between 2007 and 2017. Systematic Parasitology, 95, 427–446.
    Felsenstein, J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39, 783–791.
    Fiala, I. (2006) The phylogeny of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene analysis. International Journal for Parasitology, 36, 1521–1534.
    Fiala, I. & Bartosova, P. (2010) History of myxozoan character evolution on the basis of rDNA and EF-2 data. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10, 228.
    Fiala, I., Hlavnicková, M., Kodadkova, A., Freeman, M.A., Bartošova-Sojkova, P. & Atkinson, S.D. (2015) Evolutionary origin of Ceratonova shasta and phylogeny of the marine myxosporean lineage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 86, 75–89.
    Fitch, W. (1977) On the problem of discovering the most parsimonious tree. The American Naturalist, 111, 223–257.
    Garbouj, M., Rangel, L.F., Castro, R., Azizi, R., Santos, M.J. & Bahri, S. (2016) Morphological description and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa scorpaeni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) infecting the gallbladder of Scorpaena porcus (L.) (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from the Bay of Bizerte in Tunisia. Parasitology Research, 115, 4495–4502.
    Gunter, N.L. & Adlard, R.D. (2008) Bivalvulidan (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) parasites of damselfishes with description of twelve novel species from Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Parasitology, 135, 1165–1178.
    Gunter, N.L. & Adlard, R.D. (2009) Seven new species of Ceratomyxa Thelohan, 1892 (Myxozoa) from the gall-bladders of serranid fishes from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Systematic Parasitology, 73 (1), 1–11.
    Gunter, N.L. & Adlard, R.D. (2010) The demise of Leptotheca Thelohan, 1895 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) and assignment of its species to Ceratomyxa The´lohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae), Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003 (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae), Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 and Sphaerospora Thelohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae). Systematic Parasitology, 75, 81–104.
    Gunter, N.L., Whipps, C.M. & Adlard, R.D. (2009) Ceratomyxa (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida): robust taxon or genus of convenience? International Journal for Parasitology, 39, 1395–1405.
    Gunter, N.L., Burger, M.A. & Adlard, R.D. (2010) Morphometric and molecular characterisation of four new Ceratomyxa species (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida: Ceratomyxidae) from fishes off Lizard Island. Folia Parasitologia, 57 (1), 1–10.
    Guindon, S. & Gascuel, O. (2003) A simple, fast and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology, 52, 696–704.
    Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acid Symposium Series, 41, 95–98.
    Heiniger, H. & Adlard, R.D. (2013) Molecular identification of cryptic species of Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) including the description of eight novel species from apogonid fishes (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from Australian waters. Acta Parasitologica, 58 (3), 342–360.
    Hmissi, J. (2014) Contribution à l’étude de la parasitofaune de trois espèces de poissons Scorpaenidés provenant de Bizerte et de Mahdia. Mémoire de Mastère, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Tunusia, 89 pp. [in French]
    Holzer, A.S., Sommerville, C. & Wootten, R. (2004) Molecular relationships and phylogeny in a community of myxosporeans and actinosporeans based on their 18S rDNA sequences. International Journal for Parasitology, 34, 1099–1111.
    Jameson, A.P. (1929) Myxosporidia from Californian Fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 16 (2), 59–69.
    Lom, J. & Dykova, I. (2006) Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life–cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitologia, 53, 1–36.
    Moser, M. & Noble, E.R. (1976) The genus Ceratomyxa (Protozoa: Myxosporida) in macrourid fishes. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54, 1535–1537.
    Okkay, S., Özkan, H. & Özer, A. (2018) Myxozoan parasites of some teleost fishes in the Black Sea. In: Sonmez, A.H., Bilen, S., Terzi, E. & Kadak, A.E (Eds.), International Congress on Engineering and Life Science Proceeding Book. Kastamonu University, Kastamonu, pp. 80–82.
    Özer, A. & Öztürk, T. (2011) First report of Ceratomyxa sp. (Myxozoa) from Dicentrarchus labrax in the Aegean Sea and Caligus minimus (Copepoda) in the Black Sea. In: Ünlüsayýn, M. & Çakýr, D. (Eds.), 16th National Fisheries Symposium Abstract Book. Akdeniz University, Antalya, pp. 266.
    Özer, A. & Yurakhno, V. (2013) Parasite fauna of garfish Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761) collected in Sinop coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 33, 171–180.
    Özer, A., Yurakhno, V., Öztürk, T. & Kornyychuk, Y.M. (2017) Myxosporean parasites of Ceratomyxa merlangi and Myxidium gadi in whiting Merlangius merlangus: a comparative epizootiological analysis based on samples from two localities off southern and northern coasts of the Black Sea. Parasitology Research, 116, 2463–2469.
    Palenzuela, O., Redondo, M.J. & Alvarez-Pellitero, P. (2002) Description of Enteromyxum scophthalmi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Myxozoa), an intestinal parasite of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) using morphological and ribosomal RNA sequence data. Parasitology, 124, 369–379.
    Posada, D. (2008) jModel test: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 1253–1256.
    Rocha, S., Rangel, L.F., Castro, R., Severino, R., Azevedo, C., Santos, M.J. & Casal, G. (2016) Ultrastructure and phylogenetic position of Ceratomyxa diplodae (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae), from the gall bladder of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 121, 117–128.
    Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987) The Neighbor-joining Method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406–425.
    Shin, S.P., Nguyen, V.G., Jeong, J.M., Jun, J.W., Kim, J.H., Han, J.E., Baeck, G.W. & Park, S.C. (2014) The phylogenetic study on Thelohanellus species (Myxosporea) in relation to host specificity and infection site tropism. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, 72, 31–34.
    Swofford, D.L. (1998) PAUP* Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods) Version 4 beta 10. Vol.1. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, 130 pp.
    Tanzola, D., Guagliardo, S., Galeano, N., Schwerdt, C. & Gonzalez, R. (2006) Ceratomyxa elegans Jameson, 1929 (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) parasite of toadfishes from the Argentinian Sea. Natura Neotropicalis, 37, 61–66.
    Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D.G. (1997) The ClustalX-Windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 4876–4882.
    Whipps, C.M., Adlard, R.D., Bryant, M.S., Lester, R.J.G., Findlay, V. & Kent, M.L. (2003) First report of three Kudoa species from Eastern Australia: Kudoa thyrsites from mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), Kudoa amamiensis and Kudoa minithyrsites n. sp. from sweeper (Pempheris ypsilychnus). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 50, 215–219.
    Yurakhno, V.M. (1993) New data on the fauna of Myxosporidians from fishes of the Black Sea. Parasitologiya, 4, 320–325. [in Russian]
    Yurakhno, V.M. (1997) Influence of environmental factors on myxosporean infestation of Black Sea fish in coastal waters. Oceanological Studies, 1, 75–85.
    Yurakhno, V.M., Güneydağ, S. & Özer, A. (2017) New myxosporean species of genus Ceratomyxa (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) from gall bladder of the Black Sea turbot Scopthalmus maeoticus. In: Omelchuk, Y.A., Lyamina, N.V. & Kucherik, G.V. (Eds.), Enviromental, Industrial and Energy Scurity–2017: a collection of articles on the materials of the scientific and practical conference with international participation. SevSU, Sevastopol, pp. 1592–1595. [in Russian]