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Published: 2021-12-08

Phylogeny, taxonomy and flower-breeding ecology of the Colocasiomyia cristata species group (Diptera: Drosophilidae), with descriptions of ten new species

Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto 603-8047, Japan, Nagano Environmental Conservation Research Institute, Nagano 381-0075, Japan
Yunnan Key Laboratory of Plant Reproductive Adaptation and Evolutionary Ecology, School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan
School of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China
Uema 1-2-21, Naha, Okinawa 902-0073, Japan
Zoology Division (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense), Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong 16911, West Java, Indonesia
Sabah Parks, Lot 45 & 46, Level 1-5, Blok H, Signature Office, KK Times Square, Coastal Highway, 88100 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
International Affairs Division (IAD), Forest Department Sarawak, Level 13, Left Wing, Baitulmakmur II, Medan Raya, Petra Jaya, 93050, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Research Development and Innovation Division, Forest Department Sarawak, KM10, Jalan Datuk Amar Kalong Ningkan, 93259, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Biodiversity Conservation & Research Division, Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC), Lot 218, Kcld, Jalan Sungai Tapang, Kota Sentosa, 93250, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC), Lot 218, Kcld, Jalan Sungai Tapang, Kota Sentosa, 93250, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Hokkaido University Museum, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
Diptera Araceae Breeding habits Cladistic phylogeny Evolution Host plant Molecular phylogeny Morphology Species complex Species subgroup Terminology


The phylogeny of the Colocasiomyia cristata species group is reconstructed as a hypothesis, based on DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and six nuclear genes and 51 morphological characters. The resulting tree splits this species group into two clades, one of which corresponds to the colocasiae subgroup. Therefore, a new species subgroup named as the cristata subgroup is established for the other clade. Within the cristata subgroup, three subclades are recognized and each of them is defined as a species complex: the cristata complex composed of five species (including three new ones: C. kinabaluana sp. nov., C. kotana sp. nov. and C. matthewsi sp. nov.), the sabahana complex of two species (C. sabahana sp. nov. and C. sarawakana sp. nov.), and the xenalocasiae complex of five species (including C. sumatrana sp. nov. and C. leucocasiae sp. nov.). There are, however, three new species (C. ecornuta sp. nov., C. grandis sp. nov. and C. vieti sp. nov.) not assigned to any species complex. In addition, breeding habits are described for four cristata-subgroup species, each of which monopolizes its specific host plant. And, data of host-plant use are compiled for all species of the cristata group from records at various localities in the Oriental and Papuan regions. The evolution of host-plant selection and sharing modes is considered by mapping host-plant genera of each species on the phylogenetic tree resulting from the present study.


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