Specimens of Devario from a tributary to the Salween River in Myanmar initially identified as Devario browni but with a different colour pattern, were subjected to a comparative morphological analysis with syntypes and other specimens of D. browni from near its putative type locality. The Salween sample was recognised as representing a distinct species, here named Devario ahlanderi. No significant morphometric differences were found between D. ahlanderi and D. browni. The type series of Devario ahlanderi differed from D. browni and most other species of Devario in the presence of 14 vs 12 circumpeduncular scale rows. Devario ahlanderi, D. browni, and D. fangae shared subadult colour pattern. Adult D. ahlanderi differed from adult D. browni in the trunk colour pattern, consisting of rows of dark blotches or short vertical bars. In D. browni, the flank colour pattern consisted of horizontal dark stripes, the middle of which (the P stripe) frequently diverged anteriorly, enclosing a small light blotch. Specimens previously reported as D. browni from the upper Salween River basin in Yunnan differed slightly in colour pattern, and may represent a distinct species. Devario ahlanderi shared spotted colour pattern with that of one ontogenetic state in D. kysonensis, except that a row of spots marking the P-1 stripe in D. kysonensis was absent in D. ahlanderi. The minimum genetic distance between D. ahlanderi and congeneric species varied from 2.1 to 5% in the mt-coI gene.
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