Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Monograph
Published: 2022-03-30
Page range: 1-172
Abstract views: 817
PDF downloaded: 40

The Clavatulidae (Gastropoda, Conoidea) of the Miocene Paratethys Sea with considerations on fossil and extant Clavatulidae genera

Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria.
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands; Instituto Dom Luiz da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal; and International Health Centres, Av. Infante de Henrique 7, Areias São João, P-8200 Albufeira, Portugal.
Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberganlage 25 D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Gastropoda Miocene Paratethys Sea Proto-Mediterranean Sea Clavatulidae biodiversity Europe

Abstract

We present a revision of the Clavatulidae gastropods of the Neogene of the Central and Eastern Paratethys seas. In total, 111 species level names have been used in the literature for Clavatulidae of the Paratethys Sea. After revision, we document 83 species. Seventeen genus-level groups are recognized, of which eleven are formally described. Six species-groups cannot be clearly placed in a certain Clavatulidae genus. The presence of Clavatula, Perrona, Pusionella, Scaevatula and Tomellana in the Paratethyan assemblages documents a biogeographic relationship with extant Clavatulidae faunas from the tropical eastern Atlantic. No Indo-West Pacific influences were observed, as Paratethyan species previously placed in Turricula, which belongs within the Clavatulidae, do not belong within that genus. The Langhian (middle Miocene) diversity of 62 species is comparable to the number of extant species recorded from West Africa (~65 species), but displays a much higher diversity at genus level. This high biodiversity in Paratethyan assemblages suggests that the Central Paratethys was a major center of radiation for clavatulid gastropods, which is also expressed by a high endemicity of 98.8%. In contrast, the clavatulid diversity in the Eastern Paratethys was very low and stratigraphically restricted to the early Miocene Sakaraulian.

                Granulatocincta nov. gen., Megaclavatula nov. gen., Neoperrona nov. gen., Olegia nov. gen., Striopusionella nov. gen. are established as new genera. Clavatula sorini nov. sp., ‘Clavatulairisae nov. sp., Tomellana dulaii nov. sp., Tomellana aueri nov. sp., Granulatocincta callim nov. sp., Granulatocincta theoderichi nov. sp., Megaclavatula grunerti nov. sp., Megaclavatula pilleri nov. sp., Neoperrona zoltanorum nov. sp., Olegia mandici nov. sp., Perrona koeberli nov. sp., Perrona loetschi nov. sp., Pusionella hofmanni nov. sp. are described as new species from the Miocene Paratethys, and ‘Clavatulaariejansseni nov. sp., ‘Clavatulaatatuerki nov. sp. and Granulatocincta pelliscrocodili nov. sp., are described from the eastern Proto-Mediterranean Karaman Basin of Turkey.

                ‘Clavatula’ jarzynkae nov. nom., Perrona grossi nov. nom., Perrona ilonae nov. nom. and Perrona wanzenboecki nov. nom. are introduced as new names for Clavatula auingeri Finlay, 1927 [non Hilber, 1879], Pleurotoma (Clavatula) auingeri Hilber, 1879 [non Hoernes, 1875], Clavatula vindobonensis nodosa Csepreghy-Meznerics, 1954 [non Bellardi, 1847] and Pleurotoma concinna Handmann, 1883 [non Scacchi, 1836] respectively.

                Clavatula kowalewskii Bałuk, 2003, Clavatula letkésensis Csepreghy-Meznerics, 1953, Pleurotoma aculeatum Eichwald, 1830, Pleurotoma subscalaris Handmann, 1882 and Pleurotoma (Clavatula) reginae Hoernes & Auinger, 1891 are treated as junior subjective synonyms of Pleurotoma (Clavatula) antoniae Hoernes & Auinger, 1891, Perrona emmae (Hoernes & Auinger, 1879), Pleurotoma laevigata Eichwald, 1830, Pleurotoma schreibersi Hörnes, 1854 and Pleurotoma (Clavatula) apolloniae Hoernes & Auinger, 1891 respectively.

 

References

  1. Adams, C.B. (1852) Catalogue of shells collected at Panama, with notes on synonymy, station, and habitat. Annals Lyceum Natural History, New York, 5, 228–549. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55134#page/254/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1852.tb00129.xAdams, H. & Adams, A. (1853) The Genera of Recent Mollusca; Arranged According to Their Organization. Vol. 1. Ohn van Voorst, London, 256 pp., 32 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/23923#page/11/mode/1up]
    Adanson, M. (1757) Histoire Naturelle du Sénégal, Coquilles. Bauche, Paris, viii + 275 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/101773#page/7/mode/1up]
    Adegoke, O.S. (1977) Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Ewekoro Formation (Paleogene) of southwestern Nigeria. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 71, 1–379. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40629#page/7/mode/1up]
    Aldrich, T.H. (1885) Notes on the Tertiary of Alabama and Mississippi, with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, 8, 145–153. phttps://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/135041#page/435/mode/1up]
    Ali-Zade, A.A. (1974) Sarmat Azerbaydzhana. Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Moskva, 220 pp. [Али-Заде А.А. (1974) Сармат Азербайджана. Издательств О "Недра”, Москва, 220 pp., https://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-ali-zade-1974.pdf]
    Amitrov, O.V. (1973) Turrid pozdnego Eotzena - rannego Miotzena juga SSSR. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Institutom, Akademij Nauk SSSR, 135, 1–211. [https://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-amitrov-1973.pdf]
    Andrzejowski, A. (1833) Coquilles fossiles de Volhynie et de Podolie. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 6, 437–451. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/173062#page/847/mode/1up]
    Atanacković, M.A. (1985) Mekusci Morskog Miocena Bosne. Geologija Bosne I Hercegovine, Fosilna Fauna I Flora, 1, 1–308.
    Báldi, T. (1960) Tortonische Molluskenfauna von „Badener Tegelfazies’ ans Szokolya, Nordungarn. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, pars Mineralogica et Palaeontologica, 52, 51–99. [http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/annHNHM/Annals_HNHM_1960_Vol_52_51.pdf]
    Báldi, T. (1973) Mollusc Fauna of the Hungarian Upper Oligocene (Egerian) Studies in Stratigraphy, Palaeoecology, Palaeogeography and Systematics. Akademiai Kiadó, Budapest, 511 pp.
    Bałuk, W. (1970) Dolny torton Niskowej koło Nowego Sącza (The Lower Tortonian at Niskowa near Nowy Sącz, Polish Carpathians). Acta Geologica Polonica, 20, 101–157. [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/10024/8554]
    Bałuk, W. (2003) Middle Miocene (Badenian) gastropods from Korytnica, Poland; Part IV – Turridae. Acta Geologica Polonica, 53, 29–78. [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/9720/8257]
    Bałuk, W. & Radwański, A. (1977) Organic communities and facies development of the Korytnica basin (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 27, 85–123. [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/9639]
    Bałuk, W. & Radwański, A. (1991) A new occurrence of fossil acrothoracican cirripedes: Trypetesa polonica sp.n. in hermitted gastropod shells from the Korytnica Basin (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland), and its bearing on behavioral evolution of the genus Trypetesa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 41, 1–36. [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/9362]
    Bałuk, W. & Radwański, A. (1996) Stomatopod predation upon gastropods from the Korytnica Basin, and from other classical Miocene localities in Europe. Acta Geologica Polonica, 46, 279–304. [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/25865]
    Basterot, B. de (1825) Mémoire Géologique sur les Environs de Bordeaux. Première partie comprenant les observations générales sur les mollusques fossiles, et la description particulière de ceux qu'on rencontre dans ce bassin. Mémoires de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 2, 1–100. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/23524#page/12/mode/1up]
    Bauer, K. (1900) Zur Conchylienfauna des Florianer Tegels. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 36, 19–46. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/MittNatVerSt_36_0019-0047.pdf]
    Beets, C. (1941) Eine jungmiocäne Mollusken-Fauna von der Halbinsei Mangkalihat, Ost-Borneo. Verhandelingen van het Geologisch-Mijnbouwkundig Genootschap voor Nederland en Koloniën, Geologische Serie, 13, 1–220.
    Beets, C. (1942) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Angeblich Oberoligocänen Mollusken-Fauna der Insel Buton, Niederländisch-Ostindien. Leidsche Geologische Mededeelingen, 13, 255–328. [https://repository.naturalis.nl/pub/505965]
    Bellardi, L. (1847) Monografia delle Pleurotome fossili del Piemont. Stamperia Reale, Torino, 122 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/120573#page/3/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.58977
    Bellardi, L (1877) I molluschi dei terreni terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria. Parte II. Gasteropoda (Pleurotomidae). Stamperia Reale, Torino, 342 pp. phttps://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/45375#page/5/mode/1up[
    Bernard, P.A. (1984) Coquillages du Gabon [Shells of Gabon]. Pierre A. Libreville, Gabon, Bernard, 140 pp., 75 pls.
    Biskupič, R. (2020) A new evidence of Vexillum (Gastropoda: Costellariidae) from the Middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Vienna Basin (Slovakia). Acta Geologica Slovaca, 12/2, 75–88. [http://geopaleo.fns.uniba.sk/ageos/articles/abstract_en.php?path=biskupic&vol=12&iss=2]
    Boda, J. (1959) Das Sarmat in Ungarn und seine Invertebraten-Fauna. Annales historico-naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici (Természettudományi Múzeum évkönyve), 47/3, 569–862. [http://epa.oszk.hu/03200/03274/00098/pdf/EPA03274_mafi_evkonyv_1959_03_655-766.pdf]
    Boettger, O. (1902) Zur Kenntnis der Fauna der mittelmiocänen Schichten von Kostej im Krassó-Szörényer Komitat. (Mit einem Situationsplan der Fundpunkte). II. Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 51, 1–200. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/109496#page/283/mode/1up]
    Boettger, O. (1906) Zur Kenntnis der Fauna der mittelmiocänen Schichten von Kostej im Krasso-Szörényer Komitat. Gasteropoden und Anneliden III. Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt, 54, 1–99. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/108176#page/59/mode/1up]
    Bogsch, L. (1936) Tortonische Fauna von Nógrádszkál. Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évkönyve, 31, 23–144. [http://epa.oszk.hu/03200/03274/00038/pdf/EPA03274_mafi_evkonyv_1936_01_023-144.pdf]
    Bohn-Havas, M. (1973) Tortonische Molluskenfauna des östlichen Mecsek-Gebirges. Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évkönyve, 53, 947–1161. [http://epa.oszk.hu/03200/03274/00081/pdf/EPA03274_mafi_evkonyv_1973_04_1083-1140.pdf]
    Born, I. (1780) Testacea Musei Caesari Vindobonensis. Born, Vienna, xxxvi + 442 + [17] pp., 18 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/255791#page/11/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.152209
    Bošnjak, M., Sremac, J., Karaica, B., Mađerić, I. & Jarić, A. (2021) Middle Miocene serial killers: drilled gastropods from the south-western margin of the Central Paratethys. Croatia. Geologica Croatica, 74/3, 225–235. [http://www.geologia-croatica.hr/index.php/GC/article/view/1055] https://doi.org/10.4154/gc.2021.19
    Boussac, J. (1911) Études stratigraphiques et paléontologiques sur le Nummulitique de Biarrits. Annales de Stratigraphie et de Paléontologie, 5, 1–96, 22 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/235777#page/11/mode/1up]
    Boyer, F. & Hernández, J.M. (2004) Variability and distribution of Clavatula mystica (Reeve, 1843). Iberus, 22 (1), 77–84. [https://zenodo.org/record/4516361]
    Boyer, F. & Ryall, P. (2006) Two new Clavatulinae species (Caenogastropda: Turridae) from Ghana. Iberus, 24, 33–38. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/133983#page/205/mode/1up
    Brocchi, G. (1814) Conchiologia fossile subapennina, con osservazioni geologiche sugli Apennini e sul suolo adiacente. Vols. 1–2. Stamperia Reale, Milano, 712 pp. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43873#page/9/mode/1up https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11569
    Bronn, H.G. (1831) Ubersicht der Fossilen Uberreste in den tertiären subappeninischen Gebirgen. Italiens Tertiär-Gebilde und deren organische Einschlüsse. Karl Groos, Heidelberg, xii + 176 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/39170137#page/67/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.59236
    Bruguière, J.-G. (1789–1792) Encyclopédie Méthodique ou par Ordre de Matières. Histoire Naturelle des Vers. Vol. 1. Panckoucke, Paris, 758 pp. (Part 1: xviii + 344 pp. (1789), Part 2: pp. 345–757 (1792), https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/35783#page/9/mode/1up]
    Caprotti, M. (2011) Molluschi tortoniani di Stazzano (Alessandria). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 47, 47–81. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51178290#page/48/mode/1up]
    Casey, T.L. (1904) Notes on the Pleurotomidae with description of some new genera and species. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, 14, 123–170. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/84877#page/189/mode/1up]
    Cavallo, O. & Repetto, G. (1992) Conchiglie fossili del Roero. Atlante iconografico. Associazione Naturalistica Piemontese Memorie (Associazione Amici del Museo ‘Federico Eusebio’), 2, 1–251.
    Ceulemans, L., Van Dingenen, F. & Landau, B.M. (2018) The lower Pliocene gastropods of Le Pigeon Blanc (Loire-Atlantique, northwest France). Part 5*—Neogastropoda (Conoidea) and Heterobranchia (fine). Cainozoic Research, 18, 89–176.
    Chirli, C. (1997) Malacofauna Pliocenica Toscana. Vol. 1. Superfamiglia Conoidea. C. Chirli, Firenze, 129 pp.
    Cossmann, M. (1896) Essais de Paléoconchologie Comparée. Vol. 2. Cossmann, Paris, 180 pp., 8 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/113486#page/11/mode/1up]
    Cossmann, M. (1889) Catalogue illustré des coquilles fossiles de l'Éocène des environs de Paris. Annales de la Société Royale Malacologique de Belgique, 24, 3–381, 12 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5502754]
    Cossmann, M. (1900) Faune pliocénique de Karikal (Inde Francaise). Journal de Conchyliologie, 48, 14–66, pls. 2–4. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/81155#page/22/mode/1up]
    Cox, L.R. (1936) Fossil Mollusca from southern Persia (Iran) and Bahrein Island. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, New Series, 22, 1–69.
    Csepreghy-Meznerics, I. (1950) A hidasi (Baranya m.) tortonai fauna (Die Tortonische Fauna von Hidas (Kom. Baranya, Ungarn)). Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évkönyve, 39, 1–115. [https://epa.oszk.hu/03200/03274/00058/pdf/EPA03274_mafi_evkonyv_1950_02_003-103.pdf]
    Csepreghy-Meznerics, I. (1953) Mittelmiozäne Pleurotomen aus Ungarn. Annales historico-naturales Musei nationalis hungarici, New Series, 4, 5–22. [http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/annHNHM/Annals_HNHM_1953_Vol_45_5.pdf]
    Csepreghy-Meznerics, I. (1954) Helvetische und tortonische Fauna aus dem östlichen Cserhatgebirge. Annales Instituti Regii Hungarici Geologici, 41, 1–185. [http://olivirv.myspecies.info/sites/olivirv.myspecies.info/files/EPA03274_mafi_evkonyv_1954_04.pdf]
    Csepreghy-Meznerics, I. (1969) Nouvelles gastéropodes et lamellibranches pour la faune hongroise des gisements tortoniens-inférieurs de la Montagne de Bükk. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici Pars Mineralogica et Palaeontologica, 61, 63–127.
    Csepreghy-Meznerics, I. (1972) La faune tortonienne-inférieure des gisements tufiques de la Montage de Bükk: Gastropodes II. Egri Múzeum Évkönyveböl (Annales Musei Agriensis), 8, 26–46. https://library.hungaricana.hu/en/view/MEGY_HEVE_agria08_09/?pg=27&layout=s
    Dall, W.H. (1919) Descriptions of new species of mollusks of the family Turritidae from the west coast of America and adjacent regions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 56 (2288), 1–86. [https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7765993] https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.56-2288.1
    Daszkiewicz, P. & Bauer, A.M. (2008) Antoni Andrzejowski and his Contributions to Early 19th Century Knowledge of the Ukrainian Herpetofauna. Bibliotheca Herpetologica, 7/2, 14–21.
    Davoli, F. (1990) La collezione di “Fossili Miocenici di Sogliano” di Ludovico Foresti: revisione ed illustrazione. Atti della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena, 121, 27–109.
    Defrance, M. (1826) Pleurotome. dans lequel on traite meìthodiquement des diffeìrens êtres de la nature, consideìreìs soit en eux-mêmes, d'apreÌs l'eìtat actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement aÌ l'utiliteì qu'en peuvent retirer la meìdecine, l'agriculture, le commerce et les artes. Vol. 41. Levrault, Le Normant, Paris, Strasbourg, 388–396. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/81578#page/398/mode/1up]
    Des Moulins, M. Ch. (1842) Révision de quelques espèces de Pleurotomes. Actes de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux, 12, 109–185. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/101660#page/164/mode/1up]
    Dominici, S., Forli, M., Bogi, C., Guerrini, A. & Benvenuti, M. (2020) Paleobiology from museum collections: comparing historical and novel data on upper Miocene molluscs of the Livorno Hills. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia (Research in Paleontology and Stratigraphy), 126, 65–109. [https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13006]
    Douvillé, H. (1933) Le Tertiaire de Loanda. Boletim do Museu e Laboratório Mineralógico e Geológico da Universidade de Lisboa, 1, 63–115, 7 pls.
    Dulai, A. (1996) Taxonomic composition and paleoecological features of the Early Badenian (middle Miocene) bivalve fauna of Szob (Börzsöny Mts., Hungary). Annales Historico-naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 88, 31–56. [http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/annHNHM/Annals_HNHM_1996_Vol_88_31.pdf]
    Dulai, H. & Moissette, P. (2007) Mátraverebély, Szentkút. Középső-miocén (alsó-badeni), Sámsonházai Formáció. In: Pálfy, J. & Pazonyi, P. (Eds.), Őslénytani kirándulások Magyarországon és Erdélyben. Hantken Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 190–193.
    Dunker, G. (1857) Mollusca nova collectionis Cumingianae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 24, 354–358. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/46214#page/424/mode/1up]
    Eichwald, E. (1830) Naturhistorische Skizze von Lithauen, Volhynien und Podolien in Geognostisch-Mineralogischer, Botanischer und Zoologischer Hinsicht. Wilna, Voss, 255 pp. [https://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10691419_00005.html]
    Eichwald, E. (1852) Lethaia Russica ou le monde primitive de la Russie. Atlas. Schweizerbart, Stouttgart, 14 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/121983#page/9/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.52391
    Eichwald, E. (1853) Lethaia Russica ou Paléontologie de la Russie. Vol. 3. Schweizerbart, Stouttgart, 533 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/112200#page/5/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.52391
    Eremija, M. (1959) Paläontologische Neuigkeiten aus Neogenschichten südlich vor der Stadt Glina (Croatien). Anneles Géologique de la Péninsule Balkanique, 26, 185–193.
    Erünal-Erentöz, L. (1958) Mollusques du Néogène des Bassins de Karaman, Adana et Hatay (Turquie). Première these, 1ère partie. Publications de l’Institut d’Étude et du Recherches Minières de Turquie, (C), 4, 1–232.
    Ferrero Mortara, E., Montefameglio, L., Pavia, G. & Tampieri, R. (1981) Catalogo dei tipi e degli esemplari figurati della collezione Bellardi e Sacco. Parte I. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Catalogo, 6, 1–327. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/269998#page/5/mode/1up]
    Ferrero Mortara, E., Montefameglio, Novelli, M., Opesso, G., Pavia, G. & Tampieri, R. 1984 Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Catalogo, 7, 1–489. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/269689#page/5/mode/1up]
    Filipescu, S., Miclea, A., Gross, M., Harzhauser, M., Zágoršek, K. & Jipa, C. (2014) Early Sarmatian paleoenvironments in the easternmost Pannonian Basin (Borod Depression, Romania) revealed by the micropaleontological data. Geologica Carpathica, 65, 67–81. [http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/65-1/article-709/] https://doi.org/10.2478/geoca-2014-0005
    Finlay, H.J. (1926) New shells from New Zealand Tertiary beds: part 2. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 56, 227–258. [https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/periodicals/TPRSNZ1926-56.2.7.1.21]
    Finlay, H.J. (1927) New specific names for Austral Mollusca. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 57, 488–533. [https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/periodicals/TPRSNZ1927-57.2.6.1.21]
    Fischer, P. & Tournouër, R. (1873) Invertebrés fossiles du Mont Léberon. In: Gaudry, A., Fischer, P. & Tournouër, R. (Eds.), Animaux fossiles du Mont Léberon (Vaucluse). F. Savy, Paris, pp. 113–172, pls. 16–21. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34350655]
    Fischer-Piette, E. (1942) Les mollusques d'Adanson. Journal de Conchyliologie, 85, 101–366.
    Fleming, J. (1822) The philosophy of zoology; or a general view of the structure, functions, and classification of animals. In two volumes. With engravings. Vol. 2. Constable, Edinburgh, 618 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.40282
    Florei, N. (1961) Contributii la cunoasterca faunei miocene de la Zorlentul-Mare (Banat). Studii Si Cercetari de Geologie, 6 (4), 667–698.
    Fözy, I. & Leél-Össy, S. (1985a) Comparative study on the mollusc fauna of two lower-Miocene conglomerates in the eastern Mátra (N-Hungary). Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis de Rolando Eötvös nominatae, 25, 117–130.
    Fözy, I. & Leél-Össy, S. (1985b) Két kelet-mátrai alsómiocén konglomerátum molluszka faunájának összehasonlító. Földtani közlöny, 115, 181–192. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00247/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1985_115_1-2_181-192.pdf]
    Friedberg, W. (1912, 1928) Mieczaki Miocenskie ziem Polskich. (Mollusca Miocaenica Poloniae). Czesc I. Slimaki i Lódkonogi (Pars I. Gastropoda et Scaphopoda). Muzeum Imienia Dzieduszyckich We Lwowie. Vols. 1 & 5. Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne, Krakoìw, pp. 113–239, pls. 6–14 (1912) & pp. 441–631, pls. 27–38 (1928). [https://rcin.org.pl/miiz/dlibra/publication/4795/edition/29891/content]
    Friedberg, W. (1938) Katalog mego zbioru mięczaków mioceńskich Polski (Katalog meiner Sammlung der Miozänmollusken Polens). Mémoires de l'Academie polonaise des sciences et des lettres, Classe des sciences mathématiques et naturelles. Série B, Sciences naturelles, 12, 1–164.
    Gabb, W.M. (1873) Description of some new genera of Mollusca. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 24/3, 270–274. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/84756#page/298/mode/1up]
    Gardner, J.A. (1935) The Midway Group of Texas, including a chapter on the coral fauna by Thomas Wayland Vaughan and Willis Parkison Popenoe. The University of Texas Bulletin, 3301, 1–403. [http://olivirv.myspecies.info/sites/olivirv.myspecies.info/files/The%20Midway%20group%20of%20Texas%20-%20Gardner%2C%20J_.pdf]
    Gardner, J.A. (1947) The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida. Part VIII. Ctenobranchia (remainder), Aspidobranchia, and Scaphopoda. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 142H, 493–656, pls. 52–62. [https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0142f/report.pdf] https://doi.org/10.3133/pp142H
    Glaessner, M.F. (1926) Neue Untersuchungen über die Grunder Schichten bei Korneuburg. Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 1926, 111–125. [http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VerhGeolBundesanstalt_1926_0111-0125.pdf]
    Glibert, M. (1954) Pleurotomes du Miocène de la Belgique et du bassin de la Loire. Memoires de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 129, 1–75, 7 pls.
    Glibert, M. (1960) Les Conacea Fossiles du Cénozoique Étranger des collections de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Memoires de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 64, 1–133. [https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/35118094.pdf]
    Gmelin, J.F. (1791) Vermes. In: Gmelin, J.F. (Ed.), Caroli a Linnaei Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae. Tome 1 (6). 13th Edition. G.E. Beer, Lipsiae, pp. 3021–3910. [http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83098#5]
    Gofas, S. (1990) Scaevatula n. gen., a sinistral clavatuline Turrid from West Africa (Gastropoda: Turridae). Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120, 11–22. https://doi.org/10.1127/arch.moll/120/1990/11
    Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M. & Ogg, G. (2012) The Geologic Time Scale 2012. 2 Vols. Elsevier, Oxford, 1176 pp. https://doi.org/10.1127/0078-0421/2012/0020
    Grateloup, J.P.S. de (1832) Tableau des coquilles Fossiles qu'on rencontre dans les terrains calcaires tertiaries (faluns) des environs de Dax, dans le département des Landes. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 5, 314–344. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/102890#page/325/mode/1up]
    Grateloup, J.P.S. de (1846) s.n. In: Conchyliologie fossile des terrains tertiaires du Bassin de l'Adour, (environs de Dax). Tome Ier. Univalves. Atlas. Th. Lafargue, Bordeaux, pls. 1–45 (1840) + pp. i–xx + 1–12 pp., pls. 46–48 (1846). [https://archive.org/details/conchyliologief00gratgoog]
    Gray, J.E. (1826) Mollusca. Appendix. In: King, P.P. (Ed.), Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia, Performed Between the Years 1818 and 1822. Vol. 2. John Murray, London, pp. 474–496. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/228738#page/7/mode/1up]
    Gray, J.E. (1847) A list of the genera of recent mollusca, their synonyma and types. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 15, 129–219. [http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12862913]
    Gray, J.E. (1853) On the division of Ctenobranchous Gasteropodous Mollusca into larger groups and families. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 2, 11, 124–133. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/48966#page/154/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1080/03745485609496511
    Gundestrup, B. (1991) Det kongelige danske Kunstkammer 1737 / The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737. 2 Vols. & Supplement. Nationalmuseet (Nyt Nordisk Forlag Arnold Busck), Kopenhagen, 417 + 477 + 71 pp.
    Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) Past: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4, 1–9.
    Handmann, R. (1882) Zur Tertiärfauna des Wiener Beckens. Verhandlungen der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 1882, 210–222. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1882_210_A.pdf]
    Handmann, R. (1883) Die fossilen Binnefaunen von St. Veit a. d. Triesting. Verhandlungen der k.k. Reichsanstalt, 1883, 170–175. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1883_170_A.pdf]
    Handmann, R. (1888) Die Neogenablagerungen des österreichisch-ungarischen Tertiärbeckens. Aschendorff, Münster, 71 pp. [https://sammlungen.ulb.uni-muenster.de/hd/content/pageview/2023238]
    Harzhauser, M. (2002) Marine und brachyhaline Gastropoden aus dem Karpatium des Korneuburger Beckens und der Kreuzstettener Bucht (Österreich, Untermiozän). Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 27, 61–159. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Beitr-Palaeontologie_27_0061-0159.pdf]
    Harzhauser, M. (2003) Marine Gastropods, Scaphopods and Cephalopods of the Karpatian in the Central Paratethys. In: Brzobohatý, R., Cicha, I., Kováč, M. & Rögl, F. (Eds.), The Karpatian—a Lower Miocene Stage of the Central Paratethys. Masaryk University, Brno, pp. 193–201. [http://www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/harzhauser/2004/Harzhauser_KarpatianGastros_2004.pdf]
    Harzhauser, M. & Landau, B. (2012) A revision of the Neogene Cancellariid Gastropods of the Paratethys Sea. Zootaxa, 3472 (1) 1–71. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3472.1.1
    Harzhauser, M. & Landau, B.M. (2017) A revision of the Neogene Conidae and Conorbidae (Gastropoda) of the Paratethys Sea. Zootaxa, 4210 (1), 1–178. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4210.1.1
    Harzhauser, M. & Landau, B.M. (2019) Turritellidae (Gastropoda) of the Miocene Paratethys Sea with considerations about turritellid genera. Zootaxa, 4681 (1), 1–136, https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4681.1.1
    Harzhauser, M. & Landau, B.M. (2021a) An overlooked diversity – the Costellariidae (Gastropoda) of the Miocene Paratethys Sea. Zootaxa, 4983 (1), 1–70. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4982.1.1
    Harzhauser, M. & Landau, B.M. (2021b) The Columbellidae (Gastropoda, Buccinoidea) of the Miocene Paratethys Sea. Zootaxa, 5025 (1), 1–75. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5025.1.1
    Harzhauser, M. & Landau, B.M. (2021c) The Mitridae (Gastropoda) of the Miocene Paratethys Sea. Zoozaxa, 4983 (1), 1–72. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4983.1.1
    Harzhauser, M. & Piller, W.E. (2007) Benchmark data of a changing sea.—Palaeogeography, Palaeobiogeography and Events in the Central Paratethys during the Miocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253, 8–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.03.031
    Harzhauser, M., Mandic, O. & Zuschin, M. (2003) Changes in Paratethyan marine molluscs at the Early/Middle Miocene transition—diversity, paleogeography and paleoclimate. Acta Geologica Polonica, 53, 323–339. [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/9737/8273]
    Harzhauser, M., Böhme, M., Mandic, O. & Hofmann, Ch.-Ch. (2002) The Karpatian (Late Burdigalian) of the Korneuburg Basin—A Palaeoecological and Biostratigraphical Synthesis. Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 27, 441–456. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Beitr-Palaeontologie_27_0441-0456.pdf]
    Harzhauser, M., Reuter, M., Mandic, O., Schneider, S., Piller, W.E., Brandano, M. (2013) “Pseudo-Sarmatian” mollusc assemblages from the Early Messinian oolite shoals of Sicily (Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 119, 351–386. [https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/6044]
    Harzhauser, M., Grunert, P., Mandic, O., Lukeneder, P., García Gallardo, Á., Neubauer, T.A., Carnevale, G., Landau, B.M., Sauer, R. & Strauss, P. (2018) Middle and Late Badenian palaeoenvironments in the northern Vienna Basin and their potential link to the Badenian Salinity Crisis. Geologica Carpathica, 69, 129–168. https://doi.org/10.1515/geoca-2018-0009
    Hauer, J. (1837) Über das Vorkommen fossiler Thierreste im tertiären Becken von Wien, und angehängte Vergleichung derselben mit den Überresten derer gleichzeitigen Ablagerungen, nebst einigen nachträglichen Bemerkungen über das Maynzer-Becken von H. G. Bronn. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, 1837, 408–431. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/44261#page/428/mode/1up]
    Herrmannsen, A.N. (1847–1849) Indicis Generum Malacozoorum primordia. Vol. 2. Fischer, Cassel, 42 + 717 pp. [https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10307523?page=5]
    Hilber, V. (1879) Neue Conchylien aus den mittelsteierischen Mediterranschichten. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe, 79, 416–464. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/SBAWW_79_0416-0464.pdf]
    Hilber, V. (1892) Fauna der Pereiraïa-Schichten von Bartelmae in Unter-Krain. Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 101, 1005–1032, 1 pl. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/110046#page/1131/mode/1up]
    Hinculov, L. (1968) Fauna miocenă din Bazinul Mehadia. In: Iliescu, O., Hinculov, A. & Hinculov, L. (Eds.), Bazinul Mehadia, studiul geologic şi paleontologic. Memorii Institutul Geologic, 9, pp. 75–187.
    Hladilová, Š. & Fordinál, K. (2013) Upper Badenian Molluscs (Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Scaphopoda) from the Modra-Kráľová locality. (Danube Basin, Slovakia). Mineralia Slovaca, 45, 35–44. [https://da.geology.sk/navigator/download.jsp?magazineId=A1001001A18D12B33904D52777]
    Hoernes, R. (1875a) Die Fauna des Schliers von Ottnang. Jahrbuch der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 25, 333–400. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/JB0254_333_A.pdf]
    Hoernes, R. (1875b) Tertiär-Studien. Jahrbuch der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 25, 63–78. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/JB0251_A.pdf]
    Hoernes, R. (1891) Das Vorkommen der Gattung Clavatula Lamk. in den marinen Miocänablagerungen Oesterreich-Ungarns. Verhandlungen der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 1891, 125–133. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1891_125_A.pdf]
    Hoernes, R. & Auinger, M. (1891) Die Gasteropoden der Meeres-Ablagerungen der ersten und zweiten Miocänen Mediterran-Stufe in der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie. Abhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 12, 283–382, pls 37–50. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/Hoernes%20und%20Auinger%20_1879_Gasteropoden.pdf]
    Hölzl, O. (1958) Die Mollusken-Fauna des oberbayrischen Burdigals. Geologica Bavarica, 38, 1–348.
    Hölzl, O. (1962) Die Molluskenfauna aus dem Grenzbereich Burdigal-Helvet im Kaltenbach-Gernergraben, Landkreis Landkreis Miesbach/Oberbayern (Vorläufige Mitteilung). Geologica Bavarica, 55, 258–289.
    Hörnes, M. (1848) Verzeichnis der Fossil-Reste aus 135 Fundorten des Tertiär-Beckens von Wien. Braumüller, Wien, 44 pp. [Appendix to Cžjžek, J. (1849) Erläuterungen zur geognostischen Karte der Umgebungen Wiens. Braumüller, Wien 105 pp., https://books.google.at/books?id=1PL0QAAACAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=de&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false]
    Hörnes, M. (1854) Die fossilen Mollusken des Tertiär-Beckens von Wien. Abhandlungen der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 3, 297–382, pls. XXXIII–XL (1854). [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/Abh-3-GRA-gesamt.pdf]
    ICZN (1999) International Code for Zoological Nomenclature. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, The Natural History Museum. Available from: http://www.iczn.org/iczn/index.jsp (accessed 15 March 2022)
    Ionesi, B. & Nicorici, E. (1994) Contributions à l’Étude des Mollusques Badéniens de Crivineni—Pătârlagele. In: Nicorici, E. (Ed.), The Miocene from the Transilvanian Basin, Romania. Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, pp. 55–64.
    Jablonski, D. & Lutz, R.A. (1980) Molluscan Larval Shell Morphology, Ecological and Paleontological Applications. In: Rhoads, D.C. & Lutz, R.A. (Eds.), Skeletal Growth of Aquatic Organisms, Biological Records of Environmental Change. Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 323–377. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-4995-0_10
    Janssen, A.W. (1984) Mollusken uit het Mioceen van Winterswijk-Miste. Een inventarisatie, met beschrijvingen en afbeeldingen van alle aangetroffen soorten. Bibliotheek van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging, 36, 1–451, 82 pls.
    Janssen, R. (1978) Die Scaphopoden und Gastropoden des Kasseler Meeressandes von Glimmerode (Niederhessen). Geologisches Jahrbuch A, 41, 3–195.
    Janssen, R. (1979) Die Mollusken des Oberoligozäns (Chattium) im Nordsee-Becken. 2. Neogastropoda, Euthyneura, Cephalopoda. Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109, 277–376.
    Jeffery, P. & Tracey, S. (1997) The Early Eocene London Clay Formation mollusc fauna of the former Bursledon Brickworks, Lower Swanwick, Hampshire. Tertiary Research, 17, 75–137.
    Jekelius, E. (1944) Sarmat und Pont von Soceni (Banat). Memoriile Institutului Geolologic al României, 5, 1–167, 65 pls.
    Jovanović, G., Vrabac, S. & Ćorić, S. (2020) Stratigraphy revision of Upper Badenian of Rakovica stream near Belgrade (Central Paratethys, Serbia). Geološki anali Balkanskoga poluostrva, 81 (1), 11–30. [http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-0608/2020/0350-06082000005J.pdf] https://doi.org/10.2298/GABP200213005J
    Jovanović, G., Ɖuric, D., Vrabac, S., Ćorić, S., Jovanović, J. & Bojić, Z. (2020) New biostratigraphic interpretation of the Middle Miocene (Badenian) transgression in the southern margin of the Pannonian Basin (Hrvaćani, northern Bosnia, Central Paratethys), based on the fossil assemblages. Geologica Carpathica, 72, 315–332. https://doi.org/10.31577/GeolCarp.72.4.3
    Kantor, Yu. I., Fedosov, A.E. & Puillandre, N. (2018b) New and unusual deep-water Conoidea revised with shell, radula and DNA characters. Ruthenica, 28, 47–82. https://doi.org/10.35885/ruthenica.2018.28(2).1
    Kantor, Y.I., Horro, J., Rolán, E. & Puillandre, N. (2018a) Paraclavatula (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Clavatulidae), a new genus with a distinctive radula type from West Africa. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 84, 275–284. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyy012
    Katona, L.T., Kókay, J. & Berta, T. (2011) A várpalotai Faller utcai badeni korú üledék molluszka faunája. Földtani közlöny, 141, 3–22. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00335/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_2011_141_1_003-022.pdf]
    Kautsky, F. (1925) Das Miocän von Hemmoor und Basbek-Osten. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Geologischen Landesanstalt, Neue Folge, 97, 1–255.
    Kecskemétiné Körmendy, A. (1962) Űj Molluszka-Fajok a Várpalotai középsőmiocénböl. I. Gastropoda. Földtani Közlöny, 92, 81–99. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00160/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1962_1_081-099.pdf]
    Kharatishvili, G.D. (1952) Fauna sarakaulískogo gorizonta i ee vozrast. Akademija Nauk Gruzinskoj SSR, Institut Geologii i Mineralogii, Monografii, 4, 1–278.
    Kiener, L.C. (1839) Spécies général et iconographie des coquilles vivantes. Vol. 5. Famille des Canalifères. Première partie. Pleurotome (Pleurotoma), Lamarck. Rousseau & J.B. Baillière, Paris, 16 pp., 27 pls. [http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/19762]
    Kilburn, R.N. (1985) Turridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of southern Africa and Mozambique. Part 2. Subfamily Clavatulinae. Annals of the Natal Museum, 26, 417–470. [https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.10520/AJA03040798_469]
    Knudsen, J. (1952) Marine prosobranchs of tropical West Africa collected by the Alantide Expedition, 1945–46. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 114, 129–185, 3 pls.
    Kojumdgieva, E.M. (1969) Les Fossiles de Bulgarie. VIII Sarmatien. Académie des Sciences de Bulgarie, Sofia, 223 pp.
    Kojumdgieva, E.M. & Strachimirov, B. (1960) Les fossiles de Bulgarie. VII. Tortonien. Académie des Sciences de Bulgarie, Sofia, 317 pp.
    Kókay, J. (1966) Geologische und paläontologische Untersuchung des Braunkohlengebietes von Herend-Márkó (Bakony-Gebirge, Ungarn). Geologica Hungarica, Series Palaeontologica, 36, 1–149. [https://epa.oszk.hu/02900/02989/00029/pdf/]
    Kókay, J. (1972) Az ottnangien faciosztratotípus-szelvényei a Várpalotai-medencében. Földtani Közlöny, 102, 40–53. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00199/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1972_102_1_040-053.pdf]
    Kókay, J. (1996) Palaeontological and geological revision of the Badenian mollusc fauna from Illés street, Budapest. Földtani Közlöny, 126, 447–484. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00283/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1996_126_4_447-484.pdf] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb05302.x
    Koninck, L. de (1837) Description des coquilles fossiles de l’argile de Basele, Boom et Schelle. Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles, 11, 1–37.
    Kovács, Z. & Vicián, Z. (2013) Badenian (middle Miocene) Conoidean (Neogastropoda) fauna from Letkés (N Hungary). Fragmenta Palaeontologica Hungarica, 30, 53–100.
    Kovács, Z. & Vicián, Z. (2016) A new Egerian (Upper Oligocene—Lower Miocene) gastropod fauna from the Esztergom Basin (NE Transdanubia, Hungary). Földtani Közlöny, 146, 233–256.
    Kovács, Z. & Vicián, Z. (2021) Middle Miocene Conoidea (Neogastropoda) assemblage of Letkés (Hungary), Part II. (Borsoniidae, Cochlespiridae, Clavatulidae, Turridae, Fusiturridae). Földtani Közlöny, 151, 137–158. https://doi.org/10.23928/foldt.kozl.2021.151.2.137
    Kranner, M., Harzhauser, M., Mandic, O., Strauss, P., Siedl, W. & Piller, W.E. (2021) Early and middle Miocene paleobathymetry of the Vienna Basin (Austria). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 132, 105187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2021.105187
    Kroh, A. (2005) Catalogus Fossilium Austriae. Band 2. Echinoidea neogenica. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 210 pp.
    Kuroda, T. in MacNeil, F.S. (1961) Tertiary and Quarternary Gastropoda of Okinawa. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 339, i–iv + 1–148. [https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0339/report.pdf] https://doi.org/10.3133/pp339
    Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1801) Système des animaux sans vertèbres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'apres la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées; Précédé du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République. Published by the author and Deterville, Paris, viii + 432 pp. [http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14117719] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.116650
    Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1816) Liste des objets représentés dans les planches de cette livraison. In: Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (Ed.), Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique des Trois Règnes de la Nature. Mollusques et Polypes Divers. Veuve Agasse, Imprimeur, Paris, pp. 1–16, pls. 391–488.
    Lamarck, J.-B.M. de. (1822) Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome Septième. Published by the Author, Paris,711 pp. [http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47433]
    Landau, B. & Harzhauser, M. (2022) The Pliocene Gastropoda (Mollusca) of Estepona, southern Spain. Part 14: Clavatulidae (Gastropoda, Conoidea). Cainozoic Research. [in press]
    Landau, B., Da Silva, C.M. & Mayoral, E. (2011) The Lower Pliocene gastropods of the Huelva Sands Formation, Guadalquivir Basin, Southwestern Spain. Palaeofocus, 4, 1–155.
    Landau, B.M., van Dingenen, F. & Ceulemans, L. (2020) The upper Miocene gastropods of northwestern France, 5. Conoidea. Cainozoic Research, 20, 3–107.
    Landau, B.M., Harzhauser, M., Ýslamoðlu, Y. & Marques da Silva, C. (2013) Systematics and palaeobiogeography of the gastropods of the middle Miocene (Serravallian) Karaman Basin of Turkey. Cainozoic Research, 11–13, 3–576
    Laskarev, V.D. (1903) Die Fauna der Buglowka-Schichten in Volhynien. Memoires du comite geologique de Saint-Pétersbourg, Nov. Série, 5, 28, 1–148.
    Lauranceau, N. (2015) Faune de l'Aquitanien de Mérignac (Gironde, France). Le vallon des Ontines à Veyrines. Fossiles. Revue Francaise de Paléontologie, Hors-Série 6, 1–82.
    Leloux, J. & Wesselingh, F.P. (2009) Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis. NNM Technical Bulletin, 11, 1–765. [https://repository.naturalis.nl/pub/313781]
    Linné, C. (1767) s.n. In: Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio Duodecima. Reformata. Pars. 1 & 2. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, pp. 1–532 & pp. 533–1328. [http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83650#5] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.157601
    Lozouet, P. (2017) Les Conoidea de l’Oligocène supérieur (Chattien) du bassin de l’Adour (Sud-Ouest de la France). Cossmanniana, 19, 3–179.
    Lozouet, P., Lesport, J.-F. & Renard, P. (2001) Révision des Gastropoda (Mollusca) du Stratotype de l’Aquitanien (Miocène inf.): site de Saucats ‘Lariey’, Gironde, France. Cossmannia, Hors-Série 3, 1–190.
    Lukeneder, S., Zuschin, M., Harzhauser, M. & Mandic, O. (2011) Spatiotemporal signals and palaeoenvironments of endemic molluscan assemblages in the marine system of the Sarmatian Paratethys. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56, 767–784. [https://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app56/app20100046.pdf] https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2010.0046
    Malatesta, A. (1974) Malacofauna pliocenica Umbra. Memorie per Servire alla Carta Geologica d’Italia, 13, 1–498.
    Maltzan, H.F. von (1883) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der senegambischen Pleurotomiden. Jahrbücher der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 10, 115–135. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/86735#page/131/mode/1up]
    Mandic, O. & Steininger, F.F. (2003) Computer-based mollusc stratigraphy—a case study from the Eggenburgian (Lower Miocene) type region (NE Austria). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197, 263–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00469-3
    Mariani, A. & Papp, A. (1966) Zur Kenntnis der Molluskenfauna von St. Veit a.d. Triesting (Niederösterreich). Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 1966, 141–147. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/VerhGeolBundesanstalt_1966_0141-0147.pdf]
    Martelli, A. & Nelli, B. (1910) Miocene medio e superiore di Valone in Albania. Bollettino della SocietaÌ geologica italiana, 29, 513–551. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/209913#page/697/mode/1up]
    Martin, K. (1895) Die Fossilien von Java auf Grund einer Sammlung von Dr. R. D. M. Verbeek. Sammlungen des Geologischen Reichs-Museums in Leiden, Neue Folge, 1, 1–132. [https://repository.naturalis.nl/pub/509562]
    Martini, F.H.W. & Chemnitz, J.H. (1780, 1795) s.n. In: Neues Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet. Vol. 4. & 11. G.N. Raspe, Nürnberg, pp. 1–344, pls. 122–159 (1780) & pp. 1–312, pls. 174–213 (1795). [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/94987#page/5/mode/1up]
    Mayer, M.C. (1858) Description de coquilles fossiles des terrains tertiaires supérieurs (suite). Journal de Conchyliologie, 7, 73–89. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/53873#page/79/mode/1up]
    Mayer, C. (1864) Description de coquilles fossiles des terrains tertiaires supérieurs (suite). Journal de Conchyliologie, 12, 160–181. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/54459#page/168/mode/1up]
    Mayer-Eymar, C. (1886) Description de coquilles fossiles des terrains tertiaires supérieurs (suite). Journal de Conchyliologie, 26, 302–312, pl. 16. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/54516#page/310/mode/1up]
    Michelotti, G. (1847) Description des fossiles des terrains miocènes de l'Italie septentrionale. Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem, Series 2, 3 (2), 1–408. [https://books.google.be/books?id=aQVqpL58HrsC&ots=rhEPJ_C6hy&dq=Michelotti%2C%20G.%091847%09Description%20des%20fossiles%20des%20terrains%20mioc%C3%A8nes%20de%20l'Italie%20septentrionale.&lr&pg=PP5#v=onepage&q=Michelotti,%20G.%091847%09Description%20des%2]
    Mikhailovsky, G. [Михайловского, Г.П.] (1903) Die Mediterran-Ablagerungen von Tomakowka (Gouvernement Jekaterinoslaw). Mémoires du Comité Géologique, 13/4, 1–311 [in Russian with German summary, http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-mikhailovsky1903tomakovka.pdf]
    Mikuž, V. (1998) Turridae (Neogastropoda) iz srednjemiocenskih badenijskih plasti Slovenije. (Turrids (Neogastropoda) from Middle Miocene Badenian beds of Slovenia). Geologija, Ljubljana, 40, 65–101. [1997, http://www.geologija-revija.si/dokument.aspx?id=795] https://doi.org/10.5474/geologija.1997.002
    Mikuž, V. (2003) Fosilna dediščina Dolenjske v sliki in besedi. (Das Fossilienerbe von Dolenjsko in Bild und Wort). In: Smrekar, A. (Ed.), Vekov tek, Kostanjevica na Krki 1252-2002, zbornik ob 750. obletnici prve listinske. omembe mesta. Krajevna skupnost Kostanjevica na Krki. Kostanjevica na Krki, Krk, pp. 302–314.
    Mikuž, V. (2009) Miocene gastropods from the vicinity of Šentjernej and from other localities in the Krka Basin, Slovenia. Folia Biologica et Geologica, 50, 5–69. [http://www.sazu.si/uploads/files/57dfbe71e126b1a75cebe90f/420-122-0.pdf]
    Milan, A., Sakač, K. & Žagar-Sakač, A. (1974) Katalog originala tipova vrsta pohranjenih u Geološko-paleontološkom muzeju u Zagrebu. Geološko-paleontološki muzej u Zagrebu, Zagreb, 186 pp.
    Millet, P.-A. (1827) Mémoire sur un nouveaux genre (Defrancia) de coquilles de la familie de Zoophages. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Paris, 5, 437–441, pl. 9. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/24184#page/619/mode/1up]
    Millet, P.-A. (1865) Indiateur de Maine-et-Loire ou Indication par Communes de ce que Chacune d’Elle Renferme sous le Rapport de la Géographie, des Productions Naturelles, des Monuments Historiques, de l'industrie et du Commerce. Librarie de Cosnier et Lachèse, Angers, 589 pp.
    Moisescu, G. (1955a) s.n. In: Stratigrafia þi fauna de moluþte din depozitele tortoniene þi sarmatiene din regiunea Bujturi, Republica Populará Romînã. Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne, Bucarest, pp. 5–230.
    Moisescu, G. (1955b) Date noi asupra faunei de molluşte si brachiopode Tortoniene de la Lăpugiul superior. Revista Universitatii C. I. Parhon si a Politehnicii Bucareşti, 8, 255–283.
    MolluscaBase (Eds.) (2021a) Clavatula Lamarck, 1801. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=204726 (accessed 11 April 2021)
    MolluscaBase (Eds.) (2021b). Perrona Schumacher, 1817. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=225541 (accessed 28 March 2021)
    MolluscaBase (Eds.) (2021c) MolluscaBase. Clavatulidae Gray, 1853. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=411813 (accessed 10 October 2021)
    MolluscaBase (Eds.) (2021d). MolluscaBase. Tomellana Wenz, 1943. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. Available from: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=578159 (accessed 3 December 2021)
    MolluscaBase (Eds.) (2022) MolluscaBase. Pusionella Gray, 1847. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. Available from: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=224449 (accessed 3 March 2022)
    Montanaro, E. (1937) Studi monografici sulla malacologia miocenica modenese. Parte I. I mollusci tortoniani di Montegibbio. Palaeontographia Italica, New Series 7, 37, 115–191.
    Mörch, O.A.L. (1852) Catalogus Conchyliorum quae Reliquit D’Alphonso d’Aguirra & Gadeam Comes de Yoldi, Regis Daniae Cubiculariorum Princeps, Ordinis Dannebrogici in Prima Classe & Ordinis Caroli Terttii Eques. Cephalopa- Haec conchxlia publica auctione calendis octobribus dividentur. Ludovic Klein, Hafniae, 170 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42891#page/9/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11189
    Motăş, I.C. & Moisescu, V. (1975) La faune de mollusques Tertiaires de la Vallée de Muereasca (Dépression Gétique) et son importance biostratigraphique. Dări de Seamăâ ale Şedinţelor 3. Paleontologie. Institutul de Geologie şi Geofizică, 61, 77–108.
    Münster, G. [in Goldfuss, A.] (1841) Petrefacta Germaniae, tam ea quae in Museo Universitatis Regio Borussicae Fridericiae Wilhelmiae Rhenanae Servantur quam Alia Quaecunque in Museis Hoeninghusiano Muensterniano Aliisque Extant Inconibus et Descriptionibus Illustrata. Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Petrefacten Deutschlands und der Angrenzenden Länder, unter Mitwirkung des Herrn Grafen Georg zu Münster. Vol. 3. Arnz, Düsseldorf, 20 pp., pls. 166–171.
    Naumann, C.F. (1852) Atlas zu C.F. Naumann’s Lehrbuch der Geognosie. Zweite Hälfte: Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, tafel XXVII–LXX. [http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10284283_00087.html]
    Neubauer, T.A., Harzhauser, M., Kroh, A., Georgopoulou, E. & Mandic, O. (2015) A gastropod-based biogeographic scheme for the European Neogene freshwater systems. Earth-Science Reviews, 143, 98–116. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825215000197] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.01.010
    Nicorici, E. (1972) Stratigrafia neogenului din sudul. Bazinului Şimleu. Editura Academiei R.S.R., Bucureşti, 159 pp.
    Nicorici, E. & Sagatovici, A. (1973) Étude de la faune du Badénien supérieur de Minisul de Sus (Bassin de Zarand). Anuarul Institutului Geologic, 40, 111–194.
    Nikolov, P.I. (1994) Some molluscs from the Badenian (Middle Miocene) west of Pleven (Central Northern Bulgaria). II. Gastropoda: order Neogastropoda. Geologica Balcanica, 24, 45–70. [https://www.geologica-balcanica.eu/sites/default/files/articles/GB_24%20%284%29_pp.45-70%20%28Nikolov%29.pdf]
    Nolf, F. (2008) A study on the true identity of Clavatula martensi von Maltzan, 1883 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clavatulidae) resulting in the description of a new species, Clavatula matthiasi. Neptunea, 7/1, 7–16. [https://neptuneaorg.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/np7-1-tekst.pdf]
    Nolf, F. (2015) The genus Tomellana (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clavatulidae) in West Africa: a comprehensive Survey and establishment of Fusiturris kribiensis Bozzetti, 2015 as a junior synonym. Neptunea, 13, 17–37. [https://neptuneaorg.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/np13-4-tekst.pdf#17]
    Nolf, F. & Verstraeten, J. (2006) Recognition of two new Clavatula species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) in a complex group from Gabon and north Angola. Neptunea, 5, 15–29. [https://neptuneaorg.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/np5-3-tekst.pdf]
    Nolf, F. & Verstraeten, J. (2008) Two new turrid species from Congo-Brazzaville: Clavatula hattenbergeri and Clavatula congoensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clavatulidae). Neptunea, 7/1, 17–29. [https://neptuneaorg.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/np7-1-tekst.pdf]
    Nomura, S. (1935) Catalogue of the Tertiary and Quarternary Mollusca from the island of Taiwan (Formosa) in the Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Tôhoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan part 2, Scaphopoda and Gastropoda. The Science Reports of the Tôhoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan, 18, 53–228.
    Nosowska, E. (2020) Gastropods (Trochoidea: Trochidae Rafinesque, 1815 and Calliostomatidae Thiele, 1924 (1847)) from the Middle Miocene of Ukraine, Central Paratethys. Acta Geologica Polonica, 70, 1–76, [https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/28481]
    Noszky, J. (1936) Az egri felsö Cattien molluszkafaunája. Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici Pars Mineralogica, Geologica, et Palaeontologica, 30, 53–115. [http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/annHNHM/Annals_HNHM_1936_Vol_30_m_53.pdf] https://doi.org/10.1016/S0366-0850(36)80001-5
    Odhner, N.H. (1923) Contribution to the marine molluscan faunas of South and West Africa. Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar, 26 (7), 1–39.
    Oostingh, C.H. (1935) Einige neue Gastropoden aus dem Miocän von Mittel-Bantam, (Java). De Ingenieur in Nederlandsch-Indië IV. Mijnbouw en Geologie. “De Mijningenieur”, 2, 79–83.
    Oostingh, C.H. (1938) Die Mollusken des Pliocäns von Süd-Bantam in Java. I. Abschnitt (Gastropoda I). De Ingenieur in Nederlandsch-Indië, IV. Mijnbouw en Geologie. “De Mijningenieur”, 5, 17–46.
    Pálfy, J., Dulai, A., Gasparik, M., Ozsvárt, P., Pazonyi, P. & Szives, O. (2008) Catalogue of Invertebrate and Vertebrate Paleontological Type Specimens of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, 209 pp. [http://www.nhmus.hu/sites/default/files/csatolmanyok/Paleo_Type_Catalogue_Hun_Nat_Hist_Mus.pdf]
    Papp, A. (1954) Die Molluskenfauna im Sarmat des Wiener Beckens. Mitteilungen der Geologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 45, 1–112. [https://www2.uibk.ac.at/downloads/oegg/Band_45_1_112.pdf]
    Papp, A. (1974) Die Molluskenfauna der Sarmatischen Schichtengruppe. In: Papp, A., Marinescu, F. & Senes, J., M5 Sarmatien (sensu E. Suess, 1866). Die Sarmatische Schichtengruppe und ihr Stratotypus. Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen. Vol. 4. VEDA, Bratislava, pp. 318–433. .
    Pauca, M. (1935) La Bassin Néogène de Beiuþ. Anuarul Institutului Geologic al României, 17, 133–223.
    Pavlovsky, M. (1957) Prilog Poznavanju Miocenskih Gastropoda Zapresic-Brijega Kraj Samobora. Geološki vjesnik, 10, 51–55. [http://31.147.204.208/Gelogia-Croatica/clanci/1957_Pavlovsky_81.pdf]
    Pavlovsky, M. (1960) Novi elementi faune Zaprešić-Brijega Kraj Samobora. Geološki vjesnik, 13, 213–216. [http://31.147.204.208/Gelogia-Croatica/clanci/1960_Pavlovsky_133.pdf] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1960.tb00060.x
    Pereira Da Costa, F.A. (1866–1867) Gasteropodes dos depositos Terciarios do Portugal. Commissão Geologica de Portugal, Lisboa, 252 pp. [1° Caderno, i–x, 1–116 + 5 unnumbered pages of index, figure captions and errata, pls. 1–15 (1866); 2° Caderno, 117–252 + 5 unnumbered pages of index, plate captions and errata, pls. 16–28 (1867)]
    Petit, R.E. (2012) John Edward Gray (1800–1875): his malacological publications and molluscan taxa. Zootaxa, 3214 (1), 1–125. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3214.1.1
    Peyrot, A. (1931 & 1933) Conchologie néogénique de l’Aquitaine. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 83, 5–116 (1931), 84, 5–288 (1933). [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/185325#page/11/mode/1up]
    Pfister, T. & Wegmüller, U. (2007) Gastropoden aus den Belpberg-Schichten (Obere Meeresmolasse, mittleres Burdigalium) bei Bern, Schweiz. 2. Teil: Tonnoidea bis Architectonicoidea. Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 136, 151–209. https://doi.org/10.1127/arch.moll/0003-9284/136/151-209
    Pilar, G. (1874) Njekoje važnije okamine iz Pokupskoga trećegorja. Rad Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti, 26, 215–216.
    Piller, W.E & Harzhauser, M. (2005) The myth of the brackish Sarmatian Sea. Terra Nova, 17, 450–455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2005.00632.x
    Pinna, G. & Spezia, L. (1978) Catalogo dei tipi del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. V. I tipi dei gasteropodi fossili. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 119, 125–180.
    Popa, M. & Chira, C. (1999) Miocene mollusks and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages from the Borod Formation (Borod Basin, Romania). Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 2, 397–406.
    Popa, M.V., Duma, A. & Săplăcan, A. (2014) Badenian gastropods from the collections of the Mureş County Museum. Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii ‘Al. I. Cuza’ din Iasi Seria Geologie, 60, 5–30. [http://geology.uaic.ro/auig/articole/2014%20no2/L01-Popa.pdf]
    Popov, S. V., Rögl, F., Rozanov, A. Y., Steininger, F. F., Shcherba, I. G. & Kovac, M. (2004) Lithological-Paleogeographic maps of the Paratethys. 10 maps Late Eocene to Pliocene. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 250, 1–46.
    Powell, A.W.B. (1966) The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum, 5, 1–184. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/278249#page/4/mode/1up]
    Powell, A.W.B. (1969) The family Turridae in the Indo-Pacific. Part 2. The subfamily Turriculinae. Indo-Pacific Mollusca, 2, 207–416. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/197949#page/215/mode/1up]
    Pusch, G.G. (1836–37) Polens Paläontologie oder Abbildung und Beschreibung der vorzüglichsten und der noch unbeschriebenen Petrefakten aus den Gebirgsformationen in Polen, Volhynien und den Karpathen nebst einigen allgemeinen Beiträgen zur Petrefaktenkunde und einem Versuch zur Vervollständigung der Geschichte des Europäischen Auer-Ochsen. E. Schweizerbart’s Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart, xiii + [1] + 218 pp., 16 pls. [pp. 1–80, pls. 1–10 (1836), pp. i–xiii + 81–218, pls. 11–16 (1837), https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_muNYAAAAYAAJ_2
    Prévost, C. (1820) Essai sur la constitution physique et géognostique du bassin à l’ouverture duquel est située la ville de Vienne en Autriche. Journal de physique, de chimie, et d’histoire naturelle, 91, 347–364, 460–473. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/29611#page/375/mode/1up]
    Quenstedt, F.A. (1881–1884) Petrefaktenkunde Deutschlands. Der ersten Abteilung siebenter Band. Gastropoden. Fues’s Verlag, Leipzig, viii + 867 pp, pls. 185–218. [pp. 1–192, pls. 185–190 (1881), pp. 193–320, pls. 191–196 (1882), pp. 321–464, pls. 197–202 (1882), pp. 465–592, pls. 203–208 (1883), pp. 593–736, pls. 209–214 (1884), pp. 737–867, pls. 215–218 (1884), https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/51310#page/5/mode/1up]
    Rado, G. & Muţiu, R. (1970) Studiul faunei Tortoniene din Forajele de la Islaz. Analele Universitatii Bucaresti, Geologie, 19, 141–171.
    Radwański, A. (1969) Lower Tortonian transgression onto the southern slopes of the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, 19, 1–164.
    Răileanu, G. & Negulescu, V. (1964) Studiul comparative al faunei Burdigaliene din Bazinul Transilvaniei şi Bazinul Petroşeni. Anuarul Comitetului Geologic, 34, 159–193.
    Récluz, C. (1851) Description de quelques coquilles nouvelles. Journal de Conchyliologie, 2, 194–216, pls. 5–6. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/53852#page/200/mode/1up]
    Reeve, L.A. (1843 & 1845) Monograph of the genus Pleurotoma. Conchologia Iconica, or, illustrations of the shells of molluscous animals. Vol. 1. Reeve & Co., London, 40 pls., unpaginated text. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/41735#page/33/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8129
    Robineau-Desvoidy, J.B. (1830) Essai sur les myodaires. Mémoires présentés par divers savants á l'Académie Royale des Sciences de l'Institut de France, 2, 1–813. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/23218#page/9/mode/1up]
    Röding, P.F. (1798). Museum Boltenianum sive Catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturæ quæ olim collegerat Joa. Fried Bolten, M. D. p. d. per XL. annos proto physicus Hamburgensis. Pars secunda continens Conchylia sive Testacea univalvia, bivalvia & multivalvia. Trapp, Hamburg, viii + 199 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/16230659]
    Roetzel, R. (2009) Erläuterungen zu Blatt 23 Hadres. Geologische Karte der Republik Österreich 1:50000. Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien, 150 pp.
    Rögl, F. (1998) Palaeogeographic considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys Seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 99, 279–310. [http://verlag.nhm-wien.ac.at/pdfs/99A_279310_Roegl.pdf]
    Rolán, E. & Fernandes, F. (1993) Aportaciones al conocimiento de la familia Turridae Swainson, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) en las islas de São Tomé y Príncipe (Golfo de Guinea). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana, Bioloxía, 3 135–143. [https://minerva.usc.es/xmlui/handle/10347/6211]
    Rolán, E., Ryall, P. & Horro, J. (2008) Notas sobre Perrona (Gastropoda: Clavatulidae) en Africa Occidental, con la descripción de una nueva especie. Iberus, 26, 5–16. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42379524#page/13/mode/1up]
    Roshka, V.Kh. (1964) On the Middle Miocene relict forms of mollusks in the Sarmatian of the Moldavian SSR. zv. Academy of Sciences of the MSSR, 7, 61–67.
    Rosiwal, A. (1894) Zur Fauna der Pötzleinsdorfer Sande. Jahrbuch der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 43, 81–88. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/JbGeolReichsanst_043_0081-0088.pdf]
    Rossi-Ronchetti, C. (1955) I tipi della 'Conchiologia Fossile Subapennina' di G. Brocchi, 2. Gastropodi, Scafopodi. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Memorie, 5, 91–343.
    Ruggieri, C. & Davoli, F. (1984) Malacofauna di Casa Nova Calisese (Sogliano, Forli), Palaeontographia Italica, 73, 41–85.
    Rutsch, R.F. (1929) Die Gastropoden des subalpinen Helvétien der Schweiz und des Vorarlbergs. Abhandlungen der Schweizerischen Paläontologischen Gesellschaft, 49, 1–77.
    Ryckholt, P. de (1860–1862) Mélanges paléontologiques. Mémoires Couronnés et Mémoires des Savants Etrangers, Publiés par l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Part 3, pls. 21–36.
    Sacco, F. (1890) Catalogo paleontologico del bacino terziaro del Piemonte. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, 9, 189–340. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/210076#page/207/mode/1up]
    Sacco, F. (1891) I Molluschi dei Terreni Terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria. Parte 10: Cassididae (Aggiunte), Terebridae e Pusionellidae. Clausen, Torino, 68 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47831#page/7/mode/1up]
    Sacco, F. (1904) I molluschi dei terreni terziari del Piemonte e della Liguria. Parte 30. Aggiunte e correzioni (con 1400 figure). Considerazioni generali. Indice generale dell’opera. C. Clausen, Torino, 203 + xxxvi pp., 31 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/46270#page/90/mode/1up]
    Saulea, E. (1956) Contribution la stratigrafia miocenului din Subcapatii Munteniei. Annuaire du Comité Géologique, 29, 69–85.
    Scacchi, A. (1836) Catalogus Conchyliorum Regni Neapolitani quae usque adhuc Reperit. Filiatre Sebetii, Napoli, 18 pp., 1 pl. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/108194#page/5/mode/1up]
    Scarponi, D. & Della Bella, G. (2004) Molluschi marini del Plio-Pleistocene dell'Emilia-Romagna e della Toscana, Conoidea. Vol. 1. Drilliidae e Turridae. Università di Bologna, Museo geologico Giovanni Capellini, Bologna, 89 pp.
    Schafarzik, F. (1903) Budapest harmadik főgyűjtő csatornájának földtani szelvénye. Földtani Közlöny, 33, 45–53. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00051/pdf/Foldtani_kozlony_EPA01635_1903_01-04_045-053.pdf]
    Schaffer, F. (1898) Der marine Tegel von Theben–Neudorf in Ungarn. Jahrbuch der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 47, 533–548. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/JB0473_533_A.pdf]
    Schaffer, F.X. (1908) Geologischer Führer für Exkursionen im Inneralpinen Wienerbecken, II. Teil nebst einer Einführung in die Kenntnis seiner Faunen. Verlag Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 157 pp.
    Schaffer, F.X. (1912a) Das Miocän von Eggenburg. Die Fauna der ersten Mediterranstufe des Wiener Beckens und die geologischen Verhältnisse der Umgebung des Manhartsberges in Niederösterreich. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 22, 127–193. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/Abh_Bd_22_2.pdf]
    Schaffer, F.X. (1912b) Zur Kenntniss der Miocänbildungen von Eggenburg (Niederösterreich): II. Die Gastropodenfauna von Eggenburg. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse: Abteilung I, 121, 325–338. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/Schaffer_1912_Gastropodenfauna%20Eggenburg%20II.pdf]
    Schauroth, F.F. von (1865) Verzeichnis der Versteinerungen in Herzoglichen Naturaliencabinett zu Coburg: mit Angabe der Synonyme und Beschreibung Vieler Neuer Arten, Sowie der Letzteren Abbildung auf 30 Tafeln. Dietz’sche Hofbuchdruckerei, Coburg, 327 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/48722#page/5/mode/1up]
    Schnetler, K.I. & Beyer, C. (1990) A Late Oligocene (Chattian B) Molluscan Fauna from the Coastal Cliff at Mogenstrup, North of Skive, Jutland, Denmark. Contributions to Tertiary and Quaternary Geology, 27, 39–81.
    Schultz, O. (1998) Tertiärfossilien Österreichs, Wirbellose, niedere Wirbeltiere und marine Säugetiere; schöne, interessante, häufige und wichtige Makrofossilien aus den Beständen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien und Privatsammlungen; eine Bilddokumentation. Goldschneck-Verlag, Weinstadt, 159 pp.
    Schumacher, H.C.F. (1817) Essais d'un Nuveau Système des Habitations des Vers Testacés. Schultz, Copenhagen, 287 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/81329#page/7/mode/1up]
    Seneš, J. (1958) Pectunculus-Sande und Egerer Faunentypus im Tertiär bei Kováčov im Karpatenbecken. Geologické Práce, Monografická Séria, 1, 1–232.
    Shevenell, A.E., Kennett, J.P. & Lea, D.W. (2004) Middle Miocene southern ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion. Science, 305, 1766–1770. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100061
    Sieber, R. (1947) Die Fauna von Windpassing bei Grund in Niederösterreich (Bezirk Hollabrunn). Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 1945, 155–163. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1945_155_A.pdf]
    Sieber, R. (1949) Eine Fauna der Grunder Schichten von Guntersdorf und Immendorf in Niederösterreich (Bezirk Hollabrunn). Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 1946, 107–122. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1946_107_A.pdf]
    Sieber, R. (1953) Die Tortonfauna von Pötzleinsdorf (Wien, 18. Bezirk). Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bunsdesanstalt, 1953, 184–195. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1953_184_A.pdf]
    Sieber, R. (1956) Die Tortonfauna von Mattersburg und Forchtenau (Burgenland). Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bunsdesanstalt, 1956, 236–249. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1956_236_A.pdf]
    Sieber, R. (1958a) Systematische Übersicht der jungtertiären Gastropoden des Wiener Beckens. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 62, 123–192. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/Annalen_des_NHMW_1958_062_123_192.pdf]
    Sieber, R. (1958b) Die Tortonfauna von Steinabrunn bei Drasenhofen (Bez. Mistelbach, N.-Ö.). Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 1958, 142–155. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1958_142_A.pdf]
    Simionescu, I. & Barbu, I.Z. (1940) La faune sarmatienne de Roumanie. Memoriile Institutului Geologic al României, 3, 1–194, 11 pls.
    Simonelli, V. (1896) Appuntia sopra la fauna e l’età dei terreni di Vigoleno. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, 15, 325–340. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/209634#page/370/mode/1up]
    Spadini, V. & Manganelli, G. (2010) A large clavatulid species first reported from the early Pliocene of Italy (Gastropoda, Neogastropoda, Conoidea). Journal of Conchology, 40, 189–192.
    Spajić, O. (1966) Sarmatska fauna unutrašnjeg oboda Karpata (II deo—puževi). Glasnik Prirodnjačkog Muzeja, Series A, 21, 21–57.
    Stancu, I. & Andreescu, E. (1968) Fauna tortoniana din regiunea Rugi-Delinesti (Bazinul Caransebesului). Studii şi cercetări de Geologie, Geofizică, Geografie, Seria Geologie, 13 (2), 455–471.
    Stein, G., Moths, H., Albrecht, F., Havekost, U. & Fehse, D. (2016) Revision der miozänen Molluskenfauna. (Hemmoorium) von Werder bei Achim (Nordwest-Niedersachsen). Palaeofocus, 5, 1–289.
    Steininger, F. (1963) Die Molluskenfauna aus dem Burdigal (unter-Miozän) von Fels am Wagram in Niederösterreich. Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 110, 1–87. [https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/DAKW_110_5_0003-0087.pdf] https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-5510-3
    Steininger, F., Ctyroky, P., Ondrejickova, A. & Senes, J. (1971) Die Mollusken der Eggenburger Schichtengruppe. In: Steininger, F. & Senes, J. (Eds.), M1 Eggenburgien. Die Eggenburger Schichtengruppe und ihr Stratotypus. Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen. Vol. 2. Veda, Bratislava, pp. 356–591.
    Steininger, F. (1973) Die Molluskenfaunen des Ottnangien. In: Papp, A., Rögl, F. & Senes, J. (Eds.), M2 Ottnangien. Die Innviertler, Salgótarjáner, Bántapusztaer Schichtgruppe und die Rzehakia Formation. Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen, Miozän der zentralen Paratethys. Vol. 3. Veda, Bratislava, pp. 380–615.
    Strausz, L. (1926) A Báni hegység Mediterrán rétegei. Földtani Közlöny, 56, 116–222. [http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00378/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1926_56_118-122.pdf]
    Strausz, L. (1954) Várpalotai felsó-mediteeán csigák. Geologica Hungarica, 25, 1–150. [http://epa.oszk.hu/02900/02989/00022/pdf/EPA02989_geologica_hungarica_ser_paleo_25_1954_085-125.pdf]
    Strausz, L. (1955) Adatok a Várpalotai Miocén faunához. Földtani Közlöny, 85/2, 198–210. http://epa.oszk.hu/01600/01635/00369/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1955_085_2_198-210.pdf
    Strausz, L. (1960) Új nevek és új alakok a Miocén Puhatestűek Közt. Földtani Közlöny, 1960, 348–354. [http://epa.niif.hu/01600/01635/00154/pdf/EPA01635_foldtani_kozlony_1960_3_348-354.pdf]
    Strausz, L. (1966) Die Miozän-Mediterranen Gastropoden Ungarns. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 693 pp.
    Strebel, H. (1912) Bemerkungen zu den Clavatula-Gruppen Perrona und Tomella. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten, 29, 1–24, 1 pl.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10744
    Strebel, H. (1914) Mollusca I, Gen. Pusionella. In: Michaelsen, W. (Ed.), Kenntnis der Meeresfauna Westafrikas. Band 1. Friedrichsen & Co., Hamburg, 87–125. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7078288#page/101/mode/1up
    Šuklje, F. (1929) Mediteranska fauna zapresic Brijega u Samoborskoj Gori. Vijesti Geoloskoga zavoda, 3, 1–52. https://doi.org/10.3996/nafa.52.0001
    Švagrovský, J. (1958) Miocénne Pleurotomidae západokarpatských panví (Miozäne Pleurotomidae der westkarpatischen Becken). Acta Geologica et Geographica Universitatis Comenianae, Geologica, 1, 5–56.
    Švagrovký, J. (1959) Asociácie mäkkýšov brakických uloženín vrchného Tortónu a spodného Sarmatu východného Slovenska. Geologické Práce, 15, 215–252.
    Švagrovký, J. (1960a) Biostratigrafia a fauna mäkkýšov vrchného Tortónu východného úpätia Slanských hôr. Geologické Práce, 57, 1–216.
    Švagrovský, J. (1960b) Biostratigrafia a fauna mäkkýšov vrchného Tortónu východného úpätia Slanských hôr. Geologické Práce, 57, 1–216.
    Švagrovský, J. (1964) Zur Torton-Sarmat Grenze im ostslowakischen Neogen. Geologický Sbornik, 15, 79–86.
    Švagrovský, J. (1971) Das Sarmat der Tschechoslowakei und seine Molluskenfauna. Acta Geologica et Geographica Universitatis Comeniae, Geologica, 20, 1–473.
    Švagrovský, J. (1981a) Bivalvia des oberen Badeniens (Miozän) von Borský Mikulás (NO-Teil des Wiener Beckens) und ihr Lebensmilieu. Geologický Zborník, Geologica Carpathica, 32, 387–426.
    Švagrovský, J. (1981b) Lithofazielle Entwicklung und Molluskenfauna des oberen Badeniens (Miozän M4d) in dem Gebiet Bratislava. Devínska Nová Ves. Západné Karpaty, ser. Paleontológia, 7, 5–204.
    Švagrovský, J. (1982) Gastropoda, Prosobranchia. Teil 2. Neogastropoda des oberen Badeniens von Borský Mikuláš (NO-Teil des Wiener Beckens) und ihre stratigraphische Bedeutung. Geologický Zborník; Geologica Carpathica, 33/4, 383–435. [http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/archive-1950-1996/#]
    Swainson, W. (1840) A treatise on malacology or shells and shell-fish. Longman, London, viii + 419 pp. [http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/33450]
    Tavani, G. (1939) Fossili del Miocene della Cirenaica. Palaeontographia Italica, 39, 17–76.
    Tenison-Woods, J.E. (1880) On some Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New Zealand, 4, 1–20. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/30154#page/17/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.22831
    Toula, F. (1901) Eine marine Neogenfauna aus Cilicien. Jahrbuch der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 51, 247–263. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/JB0512_247_A.pdf]
    Tournouër, R. (1873) Note sur les terrains Miocènes des environs de Sos et de Gabarret (Départments du Lot-et-Garonne et des Landes). Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 29, 119–169, 3 pls. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/106375#page/133/mode/1up]
    Traub, F. (1979) Weitere Paleozän-Gastropoden aus dem Helvetikum des Haunsberges nördlich von Salzburg. Mitteilungen der Bayerischen Staatssammlung Paläontologie und Historische Geologie, 19, 93–123. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/90700#page/453/mode/1up]
    Tryon, G.W. Jr. (1884) Conidae, Pleurotomidae. Manual of Conchology, Structural and Systematic, with Illustrations of the Species. Tryon, Philadelphia, 6, 413 pp., 34 pls. [https://books.google.at/books?id=uR1KAQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=de&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false]
    Tucker, J.K. (2004) Catalog of recent and fossil turrids (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Zootaxa, 682 (1), 1–1295. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.682.1.1
    Tucker, J.K. & Le Renard, J. (1993) Liste bibliographique des Turridae (Gastropoda, Conacea) du Paléogène de l’Angleterre, de la Belgique et de la France. Cossmanniana, 2 (1/2), 1–66.
    Venzo, S. & Pelosio, G. (1963) La malacofauna tortoniana del Colle di Vigoleno (Preappennino piacentino). Palaeontographia Italica, 58, 43–213.
    Vera-Peláez, J.L. & Lozano-Francisco, M.C. (2001) Revisión de la subfamilia Clavatulinae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Turridae) con ocho especies nuevas del Plioceno andaluz (S. España). Pliocenica, Publicaciones del Museo Municipal Paleontológico de Estepona, 1, 1–67.
    Vetters, H. (1910) Über das Auftreten der Grunder Schichten am Ostfuße der Leiser Berge. Verhandlungen der k.k. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 1910, 140–165. [https://opac.geologie.ac.at/ais312/dokumente/VH1910_140_A.pdf]
    Vicián, Z., Kovács, Z. & Stein, G. (2019) Addition to the Egerian (late Oligocene—early Miocene) gastropod fauna of Esztergom (Hungary). Földtani Közlöny, 149, 149–162. https://doi.org/10.23928/foldt.kozl.2019.149.2.149
    Vinassa de Regny, P.E. (1898) Synopsis dei molluschi terziari delle Alpi Venete. Palaeontographia Italica, 3, 103 (145)–158 (200). [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/106874#page/155/mode/1up]
    von Koenen, A. (1890) Das Norddeutsche Unter-Oligocän und seine Molluskenfauna. Conidae. Abhandlungen zur Geologischen Specialkarte von Preussen und den Thüringischen Staaten, 10, 281–574, pls. 24–34. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/110903#page/725/mode/1up]
    Vredenburg, E. (1921) Comparative diagnoses of Pleurotomidae from the Tertiary formations of Burma. Records of the Geological Survey of India, 53, 83–129.
    Vredenburg, E. (1922) Notes on the marine fossils collected by Mr. Pinfold in the Garo Hills. Records of the Geological Survey of India, 51, 303–337.
    Weinkauff, H.C. & Kobelt, W. (1875–1887) Die Familie Pleurotomidae. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. Vol. 4. Bauer & Raspe, Nürnberg, 248 pp., pls. A + 1–42. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/217078#page/9/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.124643
    Wenz, W. (1943) Gastropoda. Teil 1: Allgemeiner Teil und Prosobranchia. xii + 1639 pp. In: Schindewolf, O.H. (Ed.) Handbuch der Paläozoologie. Band 6. Lfg. 8. Bornträger, Berlin, pp. 1201–1506.
    Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. (2001) Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686–693. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1059412
    Zalányi, B. (1913) Újabb adatok a bujturi felsőmediterrán ismeretéhez. A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évi jelentése, 1913, 541–546. [http://epa.oszk.hu/02900/02934/00041/pdf/EPA02934_mafi_evi_jelentes_1913_541-546.pdf]
    Zelinskaya, V.A., Kulichenko, V.G., Makarenko, D.E. & Sorochan, E.A. (1968) Paleontologicheskii Spravochnik. Vol. 2 Brushonogie i Lopatonogie Molluski Paleogena i Miozhena Ukrainiy. Akademija Nauk Ukrainskoj SSR Institut Geologicheskikh Nauk, Kiev, 281 pp., 54 pls.
    Zunino, M. & Pavia, G. (2009) Lower to middle Miocene mollusc assemblages from the Torino hills (NW Italy): Synthesis of new data and chronostratigraphical arrangement. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 115, 349–370. [https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/6388/6343]
    Zuschin, M., Harzhauser, M. & Mandic O. (2004) Palaeoecology and taphonomy of a single parautochthonous Paratethyan tidal flat deposit (Karpatian, Lower Miocene—Kleinebersdorf, Lower Austria). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 246, 153–168.
    Zuschin, M., Harzhauser, M. & Mandic, O. (2005) Influence of Size-sorting on diversity estimates from tempestitic shell beds in the middle Miocene of Austria. Palaios, 20, 142–158. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2003.p03-87
    Zuschin, M., Harzhauser, M. & Mandic, O. (2007) The stratigraphic framework of fine-scale gradual and disjunct faunal replacements in the Middle Miocene of the Vienna basin (Austria). Palaios, 22, 286–297. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2005.p05-023r

  2.  

  3.  

  4.  

  5.  

  6.  

  7.  

  8.  

  9.