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Type: Article
Published: 2022-07-27
Page range: 31-48
Abstract views: 530
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New genus and species of black coral from the SW Pacific and Antarctica (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae)

U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, 10th and Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20560 USA
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), 301 Evans Bay Parade, Greta Point, Wellington, New Zealand
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), 301 Evans Bay Parade, Greta Point, Wellington, New Zealand
U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, 10th and Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20560 USA. University of South Carolina Beaufort, Department of Natural Sciences, 801 Carteret Street, Beaufort, SC 29902 USA. American Museum of Natural History, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 USA
Coelenterata Morphological convergence ITS2 mitochondrial DNA New Zealand SRP54 taxonomy Telopathes

Abstract

A new genus, Diplopathes, in the family Schizopathidae, and three new species are described from the Southwest Pacific and Antarctic region based on morphological data. The new genus superficially resembles Telopathes in being branched and having simple, bilateral pinnules, but differs in having strictly alternately arranged pinnules, and in having small polyps 4 mm or less in transverse diameter. Mitochondrial DNA placed Diplopathes and Telopathes in separate clades within the Schizopathidae, thus supporting the significance of seemingly subtle anatomical differences. The new species are: D. antarctica, with sparse branching, pinnules of up to 7 cm long, and polypar spines up to 0.045 mm tall; D. multipinnata, with dense branching, pinnules up to 3 cm long, and polypar spines up to 0.1 mm tall; and D. tuatoruensis, with very sparse branching, pinnules up to 10 cm long, and polypar spines up to 0.1 mm. Interestingly, the three new species do not form a monophyletic clade based on mitochondrial DNA. We propose and discuss two hypotheses to explain the results of the phylogenetic reconstruction, including that molecular and physical change are uncoupled or that we have uncovered another example of morphological convergence in unrelated species.

 

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