Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-08-24

Tale of two species of Stylissa (Porifera: Demospongiae: Scopalinida) from the west and east coasts of India

CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 India Institute for Environmental Studies and Social Education, 14/C3, Nesamony Nagar, Nagercoil-629 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Porifera sponges Stylissa carteri Stylissa soestii sp.nov. west and east peninsular India St. George Island Goa Muttom Hare Island Manauli Island Gulf of Mannar Palk Bay Kadmat Kadmat Minicoy Lakshadweep Islands

Abstract

Recent collections from the western and southern coasts of India recorded two species of Stylissa Hallmann (Scopalinida, Scopalinidae). Stylissa soestii sp. nov. was collected from St. George Island in Goa, Hare Island in the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Bay. It has six distinct different morphologies and sizes of styles, in addition to the typical gently curved stout and thin styles characteristic of Stylissa, and two different morphologies of strongyloxeas and rare strongyles. Stylissa carteri (Dendy, 1889) was reported previously from India (Gulf of Mannar and Pearl Banks of Tuticorin) and is redescribed here from populations in Palk Bay, east coast of India, in addition to Muttom, Vizhinjam and Lakshadweep islands, which are the first records of S. carteri from the west coast of India.

 

References

  1. Alvarez, B. & Hooper, J.N.A. (2010) Taxonomic revision of the order Halichondrida (Porifera: Demospongiae) of northern Australia. Family Dictyonellidae. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, 26, 13–36. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.287458
    Alvarez, B. & Hooper, J.N.A. (2011) Taxonomic revision of the order Halichondrida (Porifera: Demospongiae) of northern Australia. Family Halichondriidae. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, 27, 55–84. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.287472
    Alvarez, B., van Soest, R.W.M. & Rützler, K. (2002) Svenzea, a new genus of Dictyonellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) from tropical reef environments, with description of two new species. Contributions to Zoology, 71 (4), 171–176. https://doi.org/10.1163/18759866-07104007
    Burton, M. (1937) Supplement to the littoral fauna of Krusadai Island in the Gulf of Manaar: Porifera. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum, New Series, Natural History Section 1, 2, pl. 4. [https://www.worldcat.org/title/supplement-to-the-littoral-fauna-of-krusadai-island-in-the-gulf-of manaar-porifera/oclc/35608751]
    Cárdenas, P., Pérez, T. & Boury-Esnault, N. (2012) Sponge Systematics Facing New Challenges. In: Becerro, M.A., Uriz, M.J., Maldonado, M. & Turon, X. (Eds.) Advances in Sponge Science: Phylogeny, Systematics, Ecology. Vol. 61. Advances in Marine Biology, Elsevier Ltd., Amsterdam, pp. 79–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-387787-1.00010-6
    Carter, H.J. (1887) Report on the Marine Sponges, chiefly from King Island, in the Mergui Archipelago, collected for the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, by Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Museum. Journal of the Linnaean Society, Zoology, 21 (127–128), 61–84, pls. 5–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1887.tb00381.x
    Dendy, A. (1889) Report on a Second Collection of Sponges from the Gulf of Manaar. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, 3 (14), 73–99, pls. II–V, pp. 93–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938909460303
    Dendy, A. (1905) Report on the sponges collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In: Herdman, W.A. (Ed.), Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar 1905. Vol. 3 Supplement 18. Royal Society, London, pp. 57–246, pls. I–XVI. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/18069#page/71/mode/1up]
    de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez, B. Boury-Esnault, N., Carballo, J.L., Cárdenas, P., Díaz, M.C., Dohrmann, M., Downey, R., Hajdu, E., Hooper, J.N.A., Kelly, M., Klautau, M., Manconi, R., Morrow, C.C., Pisera, A.B., Ríos, P., Rützler, K., Schönberg, C., Vacelet, J. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (2022) World Porifera Database. Available from: https://www.marinespecies.org/porifera (accessed 14 July 2022) https://doi.org/10.14284/359
    Erpenbeck, D., Aryasari, R., Benning, S., Debitus, C., Kaltenbacher, E., Al-Aidaroos, A.M. & de Voogd, N.J. (2017) Diversity of two widespread Indo-Pacific demosponge species revisited. Marine Biodiversity, 47 (4), 1035–1043. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-017-0783-3
    Hallmann, E.F. (1914) A revision of the monaxonid species described as new in Lendenfeld’s ‘Catalogue of the Sponges in the Australian Museum’. Part I, II, III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 39, 263–315 + 327–376 + 398–446, pls. XV–XXIV. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.2286
    Hentschel, E. (1912) Kiesel- und Hornschwämme der Aru- und Kei-Inseln. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 34 (3), 293–448, pls. 13–21. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.85325
    Hooper, J.N.A. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.) (2002) Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Vols. 1 & 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, New York, 1708 pp. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.593
    Keller, C. (1889) Die Spongienfauna des rothen Meeres (I. Hälfte). Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 48, 311–405, pls. XX–XXV, pp. 396–397. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42532215#page/321/mode/1up]
    Morrow, C. & Cardenas, P. (2015) Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology, 12, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12983-015-0099-8
    Morrow, C., Picton, B., Erpenbeck, D., Boury-Esnault, N., Maggs, C. & Allcock, A. (2012) Congruence between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Demospongiae: A new hypothesis for relationships within the G4 clade (Porifera: Demospongiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62 (1), 174–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.09.016
    Schmidt, O. (1862) Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, viii + 88 pp., 7 pls.
    Thomas, P.A. (1986) Demospongiae of the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay. In: James, P.S.B.R. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 5. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, pp. 205–365.
    Van Soest, R.W., Erpenbeck, D. & Alvarez, B. (2002) Family Dictyonellidae Van Soest, Diaz & Pomponi, 1990. In: Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Vol. 1. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, New York, pp. 773–786. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0747-5_83