Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-09-23

A new species of deep-water tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) from the western North Pacific Ocean

Marine Fisheries Division, Fisheries Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuen, 199 Hou-Ih Road, Keelung 20246, Taiwan
Pisces Symphurus oxyrhynchus new tonguefish taxonomy Deep-Sea Japan Taiwan

Abstract

A new species of symphurine tonguefish, Symphurus oxyrhynchus sp. nov., is described from two specimens captured in deep waters (718–852 m) off Taiwan and Japan. This new species is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: predominant 1–2–2–1–2 pattern of interdigitation of dorsal pterygiophores and neural spines, 14 caudal-fin rays, 93 dorsal-fin rays, 80–81 anal-fin rays, 9 abdominal and 52 total vertebrae, 5 hypurals, small eye (7.5–8.0 % HL) with relatively large pupil (78–85% ED), moderately large scales (87–89 scales in longitudinal series, 31 scales in transverse row), snout square and projecting anteriorly, ocular side uniformly yellow to dark brown with intense pigmentation on body areas overlying dorsal- and anal-fin pterygiophores, outer surface of opercle on both sides bluish black, general background coloration shared the same coloration in blind side, including more intense on body areas overlying dorsal and anal pterygiophores. Symphurus oxyrhynchus sp. nov. is a rare species, only two specimens were retrieved by research vessels. This study provides formal description of this unique new species based on these two specimens. Further investigations and expeditions are necessary for better understanding of the biodiversity of tonguefishes in the western Pacific.

 

References

  1. Alcock, A.W. (1889) XVI. Natural history notes from H.M. Indian Marine Survey Steamer Investigator, Commander Alfred Carpenter, R.N., D.S.O., commanding. No. 10. List of the Pleuronectidae obtained in the Bay of Bengal in 1888 and 1889, with descriptions of new and rare species. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 58 (Pt. II, No. 3), 279–295.
    Alcock, A.W. (1891) Class Pisces. In: Commander R.F. & Hoskyn, R.N. (Eds.), II. –Natural history notes from H. M. Indian marine survey steamer ‘Investigator,’. Series II., No. 1. On the results of deep-sea dredging during the season 1890-91. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6), 8, 125–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939109460385
    Alcock, A.W. (1894) Natural history notes from H.M. Indian Marine Survey Steamer Investigator, Commander C.F. Oldham, R.N., commanding. Series II., No. 11. An account of a recent collection of bathybial fishes from the Bay of Bengal and from the Laccadive Sea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 63 (Part II, No. 2), 115–137.
    Alcock, A.W. (1899) A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Museum, collected by the R.I.M.S. Investigator. Government Printing, Calcutta, 220 pp.
    Bleeker, P. (1879) Énumerátion des espèces de poissons actuellement connues du Japon et description de trois espèces inédites. Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde, 18, 1–33.
    Chabanaud, P. (1954) Notules ichthyologiques (suite). Notule 46. Description d’un nouveau Symphurus de la côte sud del’Arabie. Bulletin du Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle Paris (2nd Séries), 26, 464–467.
    Chabanaud, P. (1955a) Flatfishes of the genus Symphurus from the U.S.S. “Albatross” Expedition to the Philippines, 1907–1910. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 45 (1), 30–32.
    Chabanaud, P. (1955b) Revision des Symphurus du Siboga. Beaufortia, 5 (46), 43–45.
    Chabanaud, P. (1955c) Sur cinq espéces du genre Symphurus, don’t trois sont inèdites. Bulletin du Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle Paris (2nd Séries), 27, 368–370.
    Chabanaud, P. (1956) Les Symphurus marbrés du complexe Indo-Pacifique tropical. Archives du Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle Paris (7th Séries), 4, 79–100.
    Fowler, H.W. (1934) Descriptions of new fishes obtained 1907 to 1910, chiefly in the Philippine Islands and adjacent seas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 85, 233–367
    Fricke, R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (2022) A Guide to Fish Collections in the Catalog of Fishes. Available from: https://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp (accessed 2 May 2022)
    Gilbert, C.H. (1905) II. The deep-sea fishes of Hawaiian Islands. In: The Aquatic Resources of the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, 23, 577–713. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12624
    Krabbenhoft, T.J. & Munroe, T.A. (2003) Symphurus bathyspilus: a new cynoglossid flatfish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) from deepwaters of the Indo-West Pacific. Copeia, 2003 (4), 810–817. https://doi.org/10.1643/IA02-189.1
    Lee, M.-Y. & Munro, T.A. (2021) Unraveling cryptic diversity among shallow-water tonguefishes (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) from the Indo-West Pacific region, with descriptions of five new species. Zootaxa, 5039 (1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5039.1.1
    Lee, M.-Y., Shao, K.-T. & Chen, H.-M. (2009a) A new species of deep-water tonguefish Genus Symphurus (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) from Taiwan. Copeia, 2009 (2), 342–347. https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-08-080
    Lee, M.-Y., Munroe, T.A. & Chen, H.-M. (2009b) A new species of tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) from Taiwanese waters. Zootaxa, 2203 (1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2203.1.4
    Lee, M.-Y., Munroe, T.A. & Shao, K.-T. (2013) Symphurus orientalis (Bleeker) redefined based on morphological and molecular characters (Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae). Zootaxa, 3620 (3), 379–403. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3620.3.3
    Lee, M.-Y., Munroe, T.A. & Shao, K.-T. (2014) Description of a new cryptic, shallow-water tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) from the western North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology, 85 (3), 563–585. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12440
    Lee, M.-Y., Munroe, T.A. & Kai, Y. (2017) Description of a new cryptic species of tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) from shallow waters off Japan. Ichthyological Research, 64 (1), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-016-0541-8
    Lee, S.-H., Lee, M.-Y., Matsunuma, M. & Chen, W.-J. (2019) Exploring the phylogeny and species diversity of Chelidoperca (Teleostei: Serranidae) from the western Pacific Ocean by an integrated approach in systematics, with descriptions of three new species and redescription of C. lecromi Fourmanoir, 1982. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 (465), 1–39. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00465
    Munroe, T.A. (1992) Interdigitation pattern of dorsal-fin pterygiophores and neural spines, an important diagnostic character for symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Bulletin of Marine Science, 50 (3), 357–403.
    Munroe, T.A. (1998) Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fishery Bulletin, 96 (1), 1–182.
    Munroe, T.A. (2006) New western Indian Ocean tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae, Symphurus). Copeia, 2006 (2), 230–234. https://doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2006)6[230:NWIOTP]2.0.CO;2
    Munroe, T.A. & Marsh, B.N. (1997) Taxonomic status of three nominal species of Indo-Pacific symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Ichthyological Research, 44 (2), 189–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02678697
    Munroe, T.A. & Amaoka, K. (1998) Symphurus hondoensis Hubbs 1915 (Cynoglossidae, Pleuronectiformes), a valid species of western Pacific tonguefish. Ichthyological Research, 45 (2), 385–391. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02725191
    Munroe, T.A. & Hashimoto, J. (2008) A new Western Pacific Tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae): The first pleuronectiform discovered at active hydrothermal vents. Zootaxa, 1839 (1), 43–59. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1839.1.2
    Munroe, T.A., Tyler, J. & Tunnicliffe, V. (2011) Description and biological observations on a new species of deepwater symphurine tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) collected at Volcano–19, Tonga Arc, West Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa, 3061 (1), 53–66. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3061.1.3
    Wong, M.-K., Lee, M.-Y. & Chen, W.-J. (2021) Integrative taxonomy reveals a rare and new cusk-eel species of Luciobrotula (Teleostei, Ophidiidae) from the Solomon Sea, West Pacific. European Journal of Taxonomy, 750, 52–69. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.750.1361