Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2022-11-24

Systematics of Potamanthodes nanchangi Hsu, 1936 (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae)

The Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
The Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
The Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
Ephemeroptera neotype taxonomy phylogeny China mayfly


The enigmatic mayfly Potamanthodes nanchangi Hsu, 1936 was briefly described based on a male. Currently, this species has an unclear taxonomic position and no supporting type specimen, consequently its recognition, differentiation and classification is vague. In this study, by using fresh specimens from type locality in Jiangxi province at central China, this species is redescribed, photographed, and a neotype is designated. This species evidently belongs to the genus Potamanthodes Ulmer, 1920 by its short mandibular tusks (shorter than head), presence of setae row on forefemora of nymphs, slender and deeply bifurcated V-shaped penes, common base of MP2 and CuA of forewings. Significant morphological characters defining this species are relatively long penial tips, greatly bent R1 of hindwings and small compound eyes of the males, large mandibular tusks and long forelegs of the nymphs. Therefore, the P. nanchangi is indeed a valid and apomorphic species in the genus Potamanthodes.



  1. Bae, Y.J., McCafferty, W.P. & Edmunds, G.F. Jr (1990) Stygifloris, a new genus of mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae) from southeast Asia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 83 (5), 887–891.
    Bae, Y.J. & McCafferty, W.P. (1991) Phylogenetic Systematics of the Potamanthidae (Ephemeroptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 117 (3–4), 1–143.
    Bae, Y.J. & McCafferty, W.P. (1994) Microhabitat of Anthopotamus verticis (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae). Hydrobiologia, 288, 65–78.
    Eaton, A.E. (1881) An announcement of new genera of the Ephemeridae. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 17, 191–197.
    Eaton, A.E. (1892) IX. New species of Ephemeridae from the Tenasserim Valley. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 2, 185–190.
    Gui, H. (1985) A catalog of the Ephemeroptera of China. Journal of Nanjing Normal University, 4, 79–97. [in Chinese]
    Hsu, Y.C. (1936) New Chines mayflies from Kiangsi Province (Ephemeroptera). Peking Natural History Bulletin, 10 (4), 319–326.
    Hsu, Y.C. (1937) The mayflies of China. Peking Natural History Bulletin, 12 (2 & 3), 123–126 & 221–224.
    Kang, S.C. & Yang, C.T. (1994) Ephemeroidea of Taiwan (Ephemeroptera). Chinese Journal of Entomology, 14, 391–399.
    Kluge, N.J. (2004) The phylogenetic system of Ephemeroptera. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 442 pp.
    Koss, R.W. & Edmunds, G.F. Jr. (1974) Ephemeroptera eggs and their contribution to phylogenetic studies of the order. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 55 (4), 267–349, pls. 1–24.
    Li, W.J. & Zhou, C.F. (2022) The first description of the nymph of Potamanthodes macrophthalmus You, 1984 and reinstatements of the genera Potamanthodes Ulmer, 1920 and Stygifloris Bae, McCafferty and Edmunds, 1990 (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae). Aquatic Insects. [published online]
    Mayorga, A. & Bae, Y.J. (2021) Allometry of exaggerated mandibular tusks in the burrowing mayfly Rhoenanthus coreanus (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae). Entomological Research, 51, 263–269.
    McCafferty, W.P. & Bae, Y.J. (1990) Anthopotamus, a new genus for North American species previously known as Potamanthus (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae). Entomological News, 101 (4), 200–202.
    Pictet, F.J. (1843) Histoire naturelle générale et particulaire des Insectes Névroptères—Famille des Ephemerines. Baillière édit., Paris: Kessmann et Cherbuliez édit, aussi à Genève, 319 pp.
    Ulmer, G.H. (1920) Übersicht über die Gattungen der Ephemeropteren, nebst Bemerkungen über einzelne Arten. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 81, 97–144. []
    Yoon, I.B. & Bae, Y.J. (1985) The classification of Ephemeroidea (Ephemeroptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin, Korean Entomological Institute, Korea University, 11, 93–109.
    You, D.S., Wu, T., Gui, H. & Hsu, Y.C. (1980) A new species of genus Potamanthodes (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae). Journal of Nanjing Normal University, 2, 1–4. [in Chinese]
    You, D.S., Wu, T., Gui, H & Hsu, Y.C. (1982) Genus Potamanthodes and two new species (Ephemeroptera: Potamanthidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 7 (4), 410–415. [in Chinese]
    You, D.S. (1984) A revision of genus Potamanthodes with a description of two new species (Ephemeroptera, Potamanthidae). In: Landa V. & Soldán T. & Tonner M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of Ephemeroptera. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice, pp. 101–107.
    You, D.S. & Gui, H. (1995) Ephemeroptera. Science Press, Beijing, 152 pp. [in Chinese]
    Zhou, C.F. (2013) A species list of Chinese mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera). Inland Waters Biology, Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of Benthological Society of Asia (BSA), 6, 167–225.
    Zhou, C.F., Su, C.R. & Gui, H. (2015) Outline of Chinese Mayflies. Science Press, Beijing, 310 pp. [in Chinese]