Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2022-12-21
Page range: 301-324
Abstract views: 311
PDF downloaded: 41

The larvae of caddisfly species (Insecta, Trichoptera) in northern Thai streams and their relationships to environmental variables

1School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Tumbol Maeka, Muang District, Phayao Province, 56000, THAILAND
3Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom Province, 73140, THAILAND
Trichoptera Description Hydropsyche pallipenne Hydropsyche askalaphos water quality


There have been few systematic studies on Trichoptera larvae in Thailand. The larval stages of the endemic species remain mostly unknown. Continued work on describing the larval stages of species will improve the precision of water quality monitoring metrics and enable ecological studies of species. This paper describes the unknown larvae of Hydropsyche pallipenne Banks 1938 and Hydropsyche askalaphos Malicky & Chantaramongkol 2000, with their identities deduced from the fact that both the larvae described here and identifiable adult specimens were sampled at the same location. Also, the effects of environmental variables on the distribution of caddisfly larvae in northern Thai streams were investigated. In total, 41 taxa from seven streams were identified, representing twenty-four genera and thirteen families. The Hydropsychidae were the most numerous family collected, accounting for 1,487 specimens (54%). Trichopteran abundance (for Triaenodes sp., Marilia sumatrana, Amphipsyche meridiana, Hydropsyche askalaphos, Leptocerus sp., Ganonema sp., Chimarra cf. akkaorum, Cheumatopsyche cf. dubitans, Macrostemum sp., and Leptocerus sp.) is influenced by environmental factors such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and pH. Because of their significant responses to environmental fluctuations, the caddisfly assemblage proved useful in identifying variations in water quality conditions in northern Thai streams.



  1. Albarda, H. (1881) Neuroptera. Systematische lijst, met beschrijving der nieuwe of wenig bekende soorten. [Neuroptera. Systematic list, with description of the new or little-known types.] In: Veth, P.J. (Ed.), Midden-Sumatra: Reizen en Ondersoekingen der Sumatra-Expeditie, Uitgerust door het Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 1877–1879, Beschreven door de Leden der expeditie, onder toezicht van Prof. P.J. Veth. [Middle Sumatra: Travels and Explorations of the Sumatra Expedition, Equipped by the Geographical Society, 1877–1879, Described by Members], 4 (2) [4.2], Natuurlijke Historie, 5, pp. 1–22, pls. I–VI. [in Dutch]
    APHA AWWA WPCF (1992) Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th Edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 75 pp.
    Arimoro, F.O., Ikomi, R.B. & Efemuna, E. (2007) Macroinvertebrate community patterns and diversity in relation to water quality status of River Ase, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 2, 337–344.
    Banks, N. (1931) XVIII.—Some neuropteroid insects from the Malay Peninsula. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums, 16, 377–409.
    Banks, N. (1934) XXXVIII. Supplementary neuropteroid insects from the Malay Peninsula, and from Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museum, 17, 567–578.
    Banks, N. (1938) XXI. Further neuropteroid insects from Malay. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museum, 18 (2), 220–235.
    Banks, N. (1939) New genera and species of neuropteroid insects. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 85 (7), 439–504, pls. 1–9.
    Bispo, P.D.C., Oliveira, L.G., Bini L.M. & Sousa, K.G.D. (2006) Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera assemblages from riffles in mountain streams of Central Brazil: Environmental factors influencing the distribution and abundance of immatures. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 66 (2B), 611–622.
    Bonada, N., Zamora-Munoz, C., Rieradevall, M. & Prat, N. (2004) Ecological profiles of caddisfly larvae in Mediterranean streams: Implications for bioassessment methods. Environmental Pollution, 132, 509–521.
    Buss, D.F., Baptista, D.F., Nessimian, J.L. & Egler, M. (2004) Substrate specificity, environmental degradation and disturbance structuring macroinvertebrate assemblages in Neotropical streams. Hydrobiologia, 518 (1–3), 179–188.
    Burgmer, T., Hillebrand, H. & Pfenninger, M. (2007) Effects of climate-driven temperature changes on the diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates. Oecologia, 151 (1), 93–103.
    Chantaramongkol, P. & Malicky, H. (1989) Some Chimarra (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) from Thailand (Studies on caddisflies from Thailand, No. 2). Aquatic Insects, 11 (4), 223–240.
    Clavier, S., Cottet, M., Favriou, P., Phabmixay, S.S. & Guedant, P. (2015) Spatial and temporal variation of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nam Theun 2 Reservior (Lao PDR). Hydroécologie Appliquée, 19, 217–243.
    de Moor, F.C. (2007) Regional biogeographical differences in Trichoptera diversity in South Africa: Observed patterns and processes. In: Bueno-Soria, J., Barba-Álvarez, R. & Armitage, B.J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio, pp. 211–218.
    Denning, D.G. & Schmid, F. (1971) Descriptions of four new Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 103, 1553–1556.
    Dohet, A. (2002) Are caddisflies an ideal group for the biological assessment of water quality in streams? In: Mey, W. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Xth International Symposium on Trichoptera, Potsdam, Germany July 30–August 5, 2000. Goecke & Evers, Keltern; Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Nova Supplementa Entomologica, 15, pp. 507–520.
    Dudgeon, D. (1999) Tropical Asian Streams: Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, 844 pp.
    Flint, O.S., Holzenthal, R.W. & Harris, S.C. (1999) Catalog of the Neotropical Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera). Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio, 239 pp.
    Hamid, S.A. & Raw, C.S.M. (2017) Application of aquatic insects (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) in water quality assessment of Malaysian headwater. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 28 (2), 143–162.
    Hasmi, N.A., Ramlan, N., Musa, N.N. & Faizzainuddin, M.A. (2017) Influence of physicochemical parameters on abundance of aquatic insects in rivers of Perak, Malaysia. Proceedings of 72nd IASTEM International Conference, Melbourne, 5–6 September 2017. pp. 1–5.
    Hauer, F.R. & Hill, W.R. (2007) Temperature, light and oxygen. In: Hauer, F.R. & Lamberti, G.A. (Eds.), Methods in Stream Ecology. 2nd Edition. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 103–117.
    Hall, R.J., Likens, G.E., Fiance, S.B. & Hendrey, G.R. (1980) Experimental acidification of a stream in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Ecology, 61, 976–989.
    Kimura, G., Inoue, E. & Hirabayashi, K. (2008) Seasonal abundance of adult caddisfly (Trichoptera) in the middle reaches of the Shinano River in Central Japan. In: Robinson, W.H. & Bajomi, D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Urban Pests. OOK-Press Kft., Veszprém, pp. 259–266.
    Krebs, C.J. (1989) Ecological ethodology. Harper and Row Publishers Inc., New York, 654 p.
    Lenat, D.R. & Resh, V.H. (2001) Taxonomy and stream ecology—The benefits of genus- and species-level identifications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 20 (2), 287–298.
    Li, F., Cai, Q., Jiang, W. & Qu, X. (2012) Macroinvertebrate relationships with water temperature and water flow in subtropical monsoon streams of central China: Implications for climate change. Fundamental and Applied Limnology, 180 (3), 221–231.
    Lock, K. & Goethals, P.L.M. (2012) Distribution and ecology of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Flanders (Belgium), Annales de Limnologie-International Journal of Limnology, 48, 31–37.
    Mackay, R.J. (1986) Life cycles of Hydropsyche riola, H. slossonae and Cheumatopsyche pettiti (Trichoptera: Hydropsyche) in a spring-fed stream in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist, 115, 19–24.
    Malicky, H. (1979) Neue Köcherfliegen (Trichoptera) von den Andamanen-Inseln. Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österr Entomologen, 30 (3/4, “1978”), 97–109.
    Malicky, H. (1983) Caddisflies (Trichoptera) from Parakrama Samudra, an ancient man-made lake in Sri Lanka. In: Schiemer, F. (Ed.), Limnology of Parakrama Samudra˗Sri Lanka. Dr. W. Junk Publishers. The Hague, pp. 227–228.
    Malicky, H. (1997) Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis asiatischer Arten der Gattung Cheumatopsyche Wallengren 1891 und Potamyia Banks 1900 (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae). (Zugleich 22, Arbeit über thailändische Köcherfliegen). Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 29 (2), 1015–1055.
    Malicky, H. (1998) Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis asiatischer Macronematini (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) (Zugleich 24, Arbeit über thailändische Köcherfliegen). Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30 (2), 767–793.
    Malicky, H. (2010) Atlas of Southeast Asian Trichoptera. Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 346 pp.
    Malicky, H. & Chantaramongkol, P. (1992) Einige Goera (Trichoptera, Goeridae) aus Südasien (Studien über thailändische Köcherfliegen Nr. 10). Entomologische Berichte Luzern, 27, 141–150.
    Malicky, H. & Chantaramongkol, P. (1993) Neue Trichopteren aus Thailand. Teil 1: Rhyacophilidae, Hydrobiosidae, Philopotamidae, Polycentropodidae, Ecnomidae, Psychomyidae, Arctopsychidae, Hydropsychidae. (Arbeiten über thailändische Köcherfliegen Nr. 12). Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 25 (1), 433–487.
    Malicky, H. & Chantaramongkol, P. (2000) Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis asiatischer Hydropsyche—Arten (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae). (Zugleich Arbeit Nr. 29 über thailändische Köcherfliegen). Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 32 (2), 791–860.
    Malicky, H., Chantaramongkol, P., Chaibu, P., Thamsenanupap, P. & Thani, I. (2000) Acht neue Köcherfliegen aus Thailand (Arbeit Nr. 31 über thailändische Köcherfliegen). Braueria, 27, 29–31.
    Martynov, A.V. (1931) Report on a collection of insects of the order Trichoptera from Siam and China. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 79, Article 25 (2891), 1–20, pls. 1–4.
    McCune, B. & Mefford, M.J. (2006) PC-ORD. Mutivariate analysis of ecological data. Version 5. MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Oregon. [program]
    Merritt, R.W., Cummins, K.W. & Berg, M.B. (2019) An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 5th Edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, 1480 pp.
    Mey, W. (1996) Die Köcherfliegenfauna des Fan Si Pan-Massivs in Nord-Vietnam. 1. Beschreibung neuer und endemischer Arten aus den Unterordnungen Spicipalpia und Annulipalpia (Trichoptera). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 46 (1), 39–65.
    Milne, M.J. (1938) The metamorphotype method in Trichoptera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 46 (4), 435–437.
    Morse, J.C. (2022) Trichoptera World Checklist. Available from: (accessed 14 January 2022)
    Morse, J.C., Holzenthal, R.W. & Yadamsuren, O. (2017) Chapter 4, Trichoptera. In: Morse, J.C., McCafferty, P.W., Stark, B.P. & Jacobus, L.M. (Eds.), Larvae of the Southeastern USA Mayfly, Stonefly, and Caddisfly Species (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera). Biota of South Carolina. Vol. 9. Technical Bulletin 1109. PSA Publishing, Clemson University, Clemson, pp. 248–442.
    Morse, J.C., Frandsen, P.B., Graf, W. & Thomas, J.A. (2019) Diversity and ecosystem services of Trichoptera. Insects, 10 (125), 1–25.
    Mosely, M.E. (1942) Chinese Trichoptera: A collection made by Mr. M.S. Yang in Foochow. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 92 (2), 342–362.
    Narangarvuu, D., Oyunbileg, J., Yang, P.S. & Boldgiv, B. (2015) Distribution of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera assemblages in relation to environmental variables in headwater streams of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73 (2), 835–847.
    Ormerod, S.J. & Edwards, R.W. (1987) The ordination and classification of macroinvertebrate assemblages in the catchments of the River Wye in relation to environmental factors. Freshwater Biology, 17, 533–546.
    Peiffer, S., Beierkuhnlein, C., Sandhage-Hofmann, A., Kaupenjohann, M., & Bär, S. (1997) Impact of high aluminium loading on a small catchment area (Thuringia slate mining area)—Geochemical transformations and hydrological transport. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 94 (3), 401–416.
    Pereira, L.R., Cabette, H.S.R. & Juen, L. (2012) Trichoptera as bioindicators of habitat integrity in the Pindaíba River Basin, Mato Grosso (Central Brazil). Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology, 48, 295–302.
    Peumwarunyoo, P. & Prommi, T. (2013) Larvae of Amphipsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from Thailand. Zootaxa, 3635 (3), 251–260.
    Pirvu, M. & Pacioglu, O. (2012) The ecological requirements of caddisflies larvae (Insecta: Trichoptera) and their usefulness in water quality assessment of a river in south-west Romania. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 407, 03.
    Prommi, T. (2007) Taxonomy of Hydropsychidae (Trichopteran) in mountain streams of Southern Thailand. Ph.D. dissertation, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 338 pp.
    Prommi, T. (2016) Descriptions of larvae of four species of Hydropsyche (Hydropsychidae: Trichoptera) from Thailand. Zootaxa, 4158 (4), 577–591.
    Prommi, P. & Payakka, A. (2015) Aquatic insect biodiversity and water quality parameters of streams in Northern Thailand. Sains Malaysiana, 44 (5), 707–717.
    Prommi, T. & Permkam, S. (2015) Larvae of Hydromanicus (Insecta: Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from Thailand. Zootaxa, 3914 (4), 467–482.
    Prommi, T., Permkam, S. & Malicky, H. (2006a) Description of larvae and pupae of Hydatomanicus klanklini Malicky and Chantaramongkol and H. adonis Malicky and Chantaramongkol (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from southern Thailand. Braueria, 33, 31–36.
    Prommi, T., Permkam, S. & Sites, R.W. (2006b) Description of the larva and pupa of Potamyia phaidra Malicky and Chantaramongkol (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from southern Thailand. Zootaxa, 1357 (1), 21–29.
    Prommi, T., Permkam, S. & Malicky, H. (2006c) The immature stages of Pseudoleptonema quinquefasciatum Mart. and P. supalak Malicky & Chantaramongkol (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Braueria, 33, 26–30.
    Prommi, T., Peumwarunyoo, P. & Mansukphol, P. (2016) Distribution of Hydropsychidae (Insecta, Trichoptera) and water quality parameters in Mae Tao Creek, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand. In: Vshivkova, T.S., & Morse, J.C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Zoosymposia, 10, pp. 413–423.
    Ratia, H., Vuori, K. & Oikari, A. (2012) Caddis larvae (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) indicate delaying recovery of a watercourse polluted by pulp and paper industry. Ecological Indicators, 15, 217–226.
    Resh, V.H. (1992) Recent trends in the use of Trichoptera in water quality monitoring. In: Otto, C. (Ed.), Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera, Umeå, Sweden, 3–8 August 1992. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 289–291.
    Resh, V.H. & Unzicker, J.D. (1975) Water quality monitoring and aquatic organisms: The importance of species identification. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 47, 9–19.
    Rogowski, D.L. & Stewart, K.R. (2016). Effects of increased temperature on a Trichoptera (Hydropsychidae) from premontane forest streams in Southern Costa Rica. Tropical Ecology, 57 (1), 57–68.
    Schmera, D. & Eros, T. (2004) Effect of riverbed morphology, stream order and season on the structural and functional attributes of caddisfly assemblages (Insecta: Trichoptera). Annales de Limnologie-International Journal of Limnology, 40, 193–200.
    Skuja, A. & Spuňěis, V. (2010) Influence of environmental factors on the distribution of caddisfly (Trichoptera) communities in medium sized lowland streams in Latvia. Estonian Journal of Ecology, 59 (3), 197–215.
    Suwannarat, N., Malicky, H. & Laudee, P. (2020) Four new species of caddisflies (Trichoptera: Polycentropodidae, Psychomyiidae, Hydropsychidae, Odontoceridae) from Khao Nan and Tai Rom Yen National Parks, southern Thailand. Zootaxa, 4801 (3), 577–583.
    Szivák, I., Móra, A. & Török, J.K. (2011) Spatio-temporal variations of caddisfly assemblages in a chalk stream, Balaton Upland, Hungary. In: Majecka, K., Majecki, J. & Morse, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Zoosymposia, 5, pp. 439–452.
    Tanyolaç, J. (2004) Limnology. 3rd Edition. Hatipoðlu Press, Ankara, xvi + 1006 pp.
    Thamsenanupap, P., Seetapan, K. & Prommi, T. (2021) Caddisflies (Trichoptera, Insecta) as bioindicator of water quality assessment in a small stream in northern Thailand. Sains Malaysiana, 50 (3), 655–665.
    Thomsen, A.G. & Friberg, N. (2002) Growth and emergence of the stonefly Leuctra nigra in coniferous forest streams with contrasting pH. Freshwater Biology, 47, 1159–1172.
    Ulmer, G. (1907) Note I. Neue Trichopteren. Notes from the Leyden Museum, 29, 1–53.
    Ulmer, G. (1909) Note III. Einige neue exotische Trichopteren. Notes from the Leyden Museum, 31, 125–142.
    Ulmer, G. (1951) CXXVII. Köcherfliegen (Trichopteren) von den Sunda-Inseln (Teil I). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement-Band 19, 1–528, pls. I–XXVIII.
    Urbanič G. (2006) Distribution and structure of Trichoptera assemblages in the ecoregion Hungarian lowland in Slovenia. Proceedings of the 36th International Conference of the International Association for Danube Research September 4–8, 2006. Klosterneuburg, Vienna, pp. 285–289.
    Wallace, J.B. (1975) Food partitioning in net-spinning Trichoptera larvae: Hydropsyche venularis, Cheumatopsyche etrona, and Macronema zebratum (Hydropsychidae). Annals of the American Entomological Society, 68, 463–472.
    Ward, D., Holmes, N. & Jose, P. (1995) The New Rivers and Wildlife Handbook. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Bedfordshire, 426 pp.
    Willoughby, L.G. & Mappin, R.G. (1988) The distribution of Ephemerella ignita (Ephemeroptera) in streams: The role of pH and food resources. Freshwater Biology, 19 (2), 145–155.
    Woodcock, T.S. & Huryn, A. (2007) The response of macroinvertebrate production to a pollution gradient in a headwater stream. Freshwater Biology, 52 (1), 77–196.
    Wiggins, G.B. (1996) Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). 2nd Edition. The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 457 pp.
    Yap, C.K. & Rahim Ismail, A. (2011) Relationships of distribution of macrobenthic invertebrates and the physico-chemical parameters from Semenyih River by using correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 34 (2), 229–245.
    Yuan, L.L. (2004) Assigning macroinvertebrate tolerance classifications using generalized additive models. Freshwater Biology, 49, 662–677.
    Yule, C.M. & Yong, H.S. (2004) Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region. Akademi Sains Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, vii + 861 pp.
    Zabbey N. & Hart, A.Z. (2006) Influence of some physicochemical parameters on the composition and distribution of benthic fauna in Woji Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 12 (1), 1–5.
    Zeybek, M. & Koşal-Şahin, S. (2016) The distribution of Trichoptera assemblages in relation to environmental variables in the streams of Tunceli (Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25 (11), 4972–4981.
    Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, L., Lu, D., Cai, D. & Wang, B. (2014) Influences of dispersal and local environmental factors on stream macroinvertebrate communities in Qinjiang River, Guangxi, China. Aquatic Biology, 20, 185–194.