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Type: Article
Published: 2023-03-30
Page range: 351-378
Abstract views: 1872
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Unraveling Siren (Caudata: Sirenidae) systematics and description of a small, seepage specialist

1Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 1105 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL, USA.
1Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 1105 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL, USA.
1Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 1105 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Amphibia Sirenidae phylogeny Siren sphagnicola new species Gulf Coastal Plain


For approximately four decades, scientists have known of the existence of several undescribed species of Siren in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. One of these species, S. reticulata, was recently described, but a small, seepage-dwelling species has remained undescribed until now. To resolve outstanding questions concerning the phylogeny of Siren, we collected sequence and morphometric data from specimens across the range of Siren. We found S. lacertina and S. reticulata to represent strongly supported monophyletic groups, with S. reticulata having a sister relationship to all other Siren. Additionally, we found five distinct mtDNA lineages within what has been recognized as S. intermedia. Siren lacertina and type-locality S. intermedia (lineage A) are sister mtDNA lineages, whereas S. intermedia lineages B and C show a high level of mitogenomic divergence from type-locality S. intermedia. Analyses of two scnDNA loci revealed that S. lacertina is monophyletic but nested with low positional support in a clade including the three S. intermedia mtDNA lineages. Further study is needed to determine whether S. intermedia lineages A, B, and C represent distinct species or incompletely sorted lineages. We restrict the range of S. intermedia to the region from the Escambia and Perdido river drainages of Florida and Alabama eastward through Virginia (the combined ranges of lineages A, B, and C). We also elevate S. i. nettingi (lineage E) to species status and include the larger S. i. texana form in that taxon, generating a species that occurs from the Mobile Bay drainages westward through the Mississippi Basin and southwest into northeastern Mexico. Lastly, we describe a new miniature species, S. sphagnicola, that ranges from the Florida Parishes of Louisiana eastward to the westernmost tributary creeks of Choctawhatchee Bay in the western Florida panhandle.



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