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Type: Article
Published: 2023-05-03
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Checklist, diversity descriptors and selected descriptions of a highly diverse intertidal sponge (Porifera) assemblage at Costa do Descobrimento (Bahia, Brazil)

Centro de Biociências; Departamento de Zoologia—Laboratório de Porifera—LABPOR; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; Avenida Prof. Moraes Rêgo; 1235; 50670-901; Cidade Universitária; Recife; PE; Brazil; Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil; Departamento de Biología; Escuela Superior de Ciencias Marinas; Universidad Nacional del Comahue; San Martín 247; 8520 San Antonio Oeste; Río Negro; República Argentina; CONICET—Centro de Investigación Aplicada y Transferencia Tecnológica en Recursos Marinos Almirante Storni; Güemes; 1030 San Antonio Oeste; República Argentina.
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil; Departamento de Genética; Centro de Ciências da Saúde; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Av. Carlos Chagas Filho; 373; 21941-902; Cidade Universitária; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil.
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Centro de Biociências; Departamento de Zoologia—Laboratório de Porifera—LABPOR; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; Avenida Prof. Moraes Rêgo; 1235; 50670-901; Cidade Universitária; Recife; PE; Brazil
Departamento de Invertebrados; Museu Nacional; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Quinta da Boa Vista; s/n; 20940-040; Rio de Janeiro; RJ; Brazil
Porifera Acanthotetilla Cliona Haliclona Halisarca Placospongia Prosuberites Samus beachrock reefs Coroa Vermelha Coroa alta recife de Fora

Abstract

Costa do Descobrimento is located in southern Bahia, Brazil, and only 22 species of sponges (Porifera) were known from the area until now, despite its important reef formations. In the present study, we report a checklist of the sponges of Costa do Descobrimento and their distribution in the studied reefs, with several species illustrated in life. We also describe nine new sponge records for this region, some of which are new records for Brazil, or new records of species previously only poorly known. We present alpha and beta diversity indices and compare the sponge assemblage of the sampled locations. Four reefs were considered: two fringing reefs (Arraial D’Ajuda—AA and Coroa Vermelha / Mutá—CVM) and two offshore Municipal Marine Park “Parque Municipal Marinho— (P.M.M. Coroa Alta—CA and P.M.M. Recife de Fora—RF). A total of 229 specimens were collected (224 Demospongiae, 2 Homoscleromorpha and 3 Calcarea). These were classified in 101 morphotypes. Studied materials included representatives of 15 orders, 34 families and 48 genera. The richest orders are Haplosclerida (29 spp.), Poecilosclerida (15 spp.) and Tetractinellida (11 spp.). The richest families were Chalinidae (24 spp.), Clionaidae (7 spp.) and Mycalidae and Suberitidae (6 spp. each). The richest genus is, by far, Haliclona (20 spp.). Only 13 species were shared among all four reefs surveyed, namely Amphimedon viridis, Cinachyrella alloclada, C. apion, Cladocroce caelum, Cliona varians, Dysidea robusta, Mycale (Naviculina) diversisigmata, Niphates erecta, Spirastrella hartmani, Tedania (Tedania) ignis, Terpios fugax, Tethya bitylastra and T. maza. The reefs with the highest richness were CA and CVM, and the lowest richness was observed in RF. The most similar reefs in terms of species composition were CA and CVM, while AA and RF were more dissimilar to the previous reefs, but also from each other. While the difference among CA, CVM and AA was mainly explained by species turnover, RF differed from the previous based on its lower richness (nestedness component). Even though CA and CVM were the richest reefs, AA presented the highest number of exclusive species, highlighting the uniqueness of this reef, and urging the inclusion of local beachrock fringing reefs in a more holistic conservation strategy at Costa do Descobrimento.

 

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