Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Monograph
Published: 2023-08-11
Page range: 1-147
Abstract views: 2206
PDF downloaded: 1156

The new annotated checklist of the wild bees of Europe (Hymenoptera: Anthophila)

Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
Faculty of Science; University of Hradec Králové; Hradec Králové; Czech Republic
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgiu; Centro di Ricerca Agricoltura e Ambiente; (CREA) Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’analisi dell’Economia Agraria-via di Corticella 133; 40128 Bologna; Italy
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium; Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale; Leuvensesteenweg 13; 3080 Tervuren; Belgium
Mönchhofstr. 16; 69120 Heidelberg; Germany
Zoological Museum; University of Kiel; Hegewischstr. 3; 24105 Kiel; Germany
Zoological Museum; University of Kiel; Hegewischstr. 3; 24105 Kiel; Germany.
Natural History Museum of Neuchâtel; Terreaux 14; 2000 Neuchâtel; Switzerland
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
ETH Zürich; Institute of Agricultural Sciences; Biocommunication and Entomology; Schmelzbergstrasse 9/LFO; 8092 Zürich; Switzerland
Info fauna Swiss Zoological Records Center; Avenue de Bellevaux 51; 2000 Neuchâtel; Switzerland. Institute of Biology; University of Neuchatel; Rue Emile-Argand 16; 2000 Neuchâtel; Switzerland
Institute for Evolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; acad. Lebedev; 37; 03143 Kiev; Ukraine
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
Imbacher Weg 59; D-51381 Leverkusen; Germany
Agroecology Lab;Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB); Boulevard du Triomphe CP 264/02; 1050 Brussels; Belgium
Voermanstraat 14; 6921 Duiven; The Netherlands
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
Laboratory of Zoology; Research Institute for Biosciences; University of Mons; Place du parc 20; 7000; Mons; Belgium
Hymenoptera Biodiversity conservation continental checklist decline expansion new synonym pollinators species inquirenda status resurrectus nomen dubium non-natives species nomen nudum taxonomy

Abstract

At a time when nature conservation has become essential to ensure the long-term sustainability of our environment, it is widely acknowledged that conservation actions must be implemented within a solid taxonomic framework. In preparation for the upcoming update of the IUCN Red List, we here update the European checklist of the wild bees (sensu the IUCN geographical framework). The original checklist, published in 2014, was revised for the first time in 2017. In the present revision, we add one genus, four subgenera and 67 species recently described, 40 species newly recorded since the latest revision (including two species that are not native to Europe), 26 species overlooked in the previous European checklists and 63 published synonymies. We provide original records for eight species previously unknown to the continent and, as original taxonomic acts, we provide three new synonyms, we consider two names as nomina nuda, ten names as nomina dubia, three as species inquirenda, synonymize three species and exclude 40 species from the previous checklist. Around a hundred other taxonomic changes and clarifications are also included and discussed. The present work revises the total number of genera for IUCN Europe to 77 and the total number of species to 2,138. In addition to specifying the taxonomic changes necessary to update the forthcoming Red List of European bees, we discuss the sampling and taxonomic biases that characterise research on the European bee fauna and highlight the growing importance of range expansions and species invasions.

 

References

  1. Aguib, S., Louadi, K. & Schwarz, M. (2010) Les Anthidiini (Megachilidae, Megachilinae) d’Algérie avec trois espèces nouvelles pour ce pays: Anthidium (Anthidium) florentinum (Fabricius, 1775), Anthidium (Proanthidium) amabile Alfken, 1932 et Pseudoanthidium (Exanthidium) enslini (Alfken, 1928). Entomofauna, 31 (12), 121–152.
  2. Alexander, B. & Schwarz, M. (1994) A catalog of the species of Nomada (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the World. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 55 (7), 239–268.
  3. Alfken, J.D. (1930) Zwei neue Bienen von Kreta (Hym. Apid.). Mitteilungen des Deutschen entomologischen Gesellschaft, 1, 27–30. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.48019300114
  4. Alfken, J.D. (1935) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Bienenfauna von Persien. Mitteilungen aus dem Entomologischen Verein Bremen, 23, 21–24.
  5. Álvarez Fidalgo, P. & París, M. (2023) Una especie nueva de Nomada Scopoli, 1770 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) encontrada en la colección entomológica del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (España). Boletín de la Asociación española de Entomología, 47 (1–2), 7–15.
  6. Amiet, F., Hermann, M., Müller, A. & Neumeyer, R. (2007) Apidae 5. Ammobates, Ammobatoides, Anthophora, Biastes, Ceratina, Dasypoda, Epeoloides, Epeolus, Eucera, Macropis, Melecta, Melitta, Nomada, Pasites, Tetralonia, Thyreus, Xylocopa. Fauna Helvetica, 20. Centre Suisse de cartographie de la faune et Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 356 pp.
  7. Arens, W. (2018) Nomiapis susannae sp. n., eine neue Bienen-Art aus Griechenland (Hymenoptera, Apoidea: Halictidae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 108, 103–107.
  8. Ascher, J.S. & Pickering, J. (2022) Discover Life— Bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Available from: http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Apoidea_species (accessed 15 February 2022)
  9. Astafurova, Yu. V. & Pesenko, Yu. A. (2006) Bees of the subfamily Nomiinae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Russia and adjacent countries: an annotated list. Entomological Review, 86 (1), 74–84. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0013873806010040
  10. Astafurova, Yu. V. & Proshchalykin, M. Yu. (2017) Additional data on the short-tongued bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae, Halictidae, Melittidae) of Russia. Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society, 88 (2), 81–85. https://doi.org/10.47640/1605-7678_2017_88_2_81
  11. Astafurova, Yu. V. & Proshchalykin, M. Yu. (2022) Review of the Epeolus julliani species group (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Epeolus Latreille, 1802), with descriptions of two new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 94, 191–213. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.94.96429
  12. Astafurova, Yu. V. & Proshchalykin, M. Yu. (2021) New synonymies in Sphecodes Latreille, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae) species from Italy, with taxonomic notes on type material. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 82, 347–359. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.82.64130
  13. Astafurova, Yu. V., Proshchalykin, M. Yu. & Sidorov, D.A. (2022) The type specimens of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) deposited in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Contribution V. Family Andrenidae, genus Andrena Fabricius, 1775, species described by E. Eversmann. Zootaxa, 5190 (3), 393–418. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5190.3.4
  14. Astafurova, Yu. V., Proshchalykin, M. Yu. & Maharramov, M.M. (2017) Contribution to the knowledge of the Seladonia Robertson and Vestitohalictus Blüthgen (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictus Latreille) of European part of Russia. Linzer biologische Beiträge, 49 (1), 377–386. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5190.3.4
  15. Aubert, M. (2020) Proposition de clé d’identification des Eucerini (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) de France continentale. Available from: https://oabeilles.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Proposition_cle_Eucerini_France_OA-MaA-130620.pdf (accessed 15 July 2022)
  16. Augul, R.S. (2018) Study on diversity of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) from different regions of Iraq. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum, 15 (1), 57–75. https://doi.org/10.26842/binhm.7.2018.15.1.0057
  17. Baker, D.B. (1999) On new stelidine bees from S.W. Asia and N.W. Africa, with a list of the Old World taxa assigned to the genus Stelis Panzer, 1806. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 46 (2), 231–242. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.4800460209
  18. Baldock, D., Wood, T.J., Cross, I. & Smit, J. (2018) The Bees of Portugal (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Entomofauna, Supplement 22, 1–164.
  19. Balzan, M.V., Rasmont, P., Kuhlmann, M., Dathe, H., Pauly, A., Patiny, S., Terzo, M. & Michez, D. (2016) The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Maltese Islands. Zootaxa, 4162 (2), 225–244. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4162.2.2
  20. Bartomeus, I., Lanuza, J.B., Wood, T.J., Carvalheiro, L., Molina, F.P., Collado Aliaño, M.A., Aguado-Martin, L.O., Alomar, D., Fidalgo, M.A., Fidalgo, P.A., Arista, M., Arroyo-Correa, B., Asís, J.D., Azpiazu, C., Baños-Picón, L., Beja, P., Boieiro, M., Borges, P.A.V., González Bornay, G., Carvalho, R., Casimiro-Soriguer, R., Castro, S., Costa, J., Cross, I., De la Rúa, P., de Pablos, L.M., de Paz, V., Díaz-Calafat, J., Ferrero, V., Gaspar, H., Ghisbain, G., María Gómez, J., Gómez-Martínez, C., González-Estévez, M.A., Heleno, R., Herrera, J.M., Hormaza, J.I., Iriondo, J.M., Kuhlmann, M., Laiolo, P., Lara-Romero, C., Lázaro, A., López-Angulo, J., López-Núñez, F.A., Loureiro, J., Magrach, A., Martínez-López, V., Martínez-Núñez, C., Michez, D., Miñarro, M., Montero-Castaño, A., Moreira, B., Morente-López, J., Noval Fonseca, N., Núñez Carbajal, A., Ramón Obeso, J., Ornosa, C., Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., Pareja Bonilla, D., Patiny, S., Penado, A., Picanço, A., Ploquin, E.F., Rego, C., Rey, P.J., Ribas-Marquès, E., Roberts, S.P.M., Rodriguez, M., Rosas-Ramos, N., Sánchez, A.M., Santamaría, S., Tobajas, E., Tormos, J., Torres, F., Trillo, A., Valverde, J., Vilà, M. & Viñuela, E. (2022) Base de datos de abejas ibéricas – Iberian bees database. Ecosistemas, 31 (3), 2380. https://doi.org/10.7818/ECOS.2380
  21. Benoist, R. (1934) Descriptions d’espèces nouvelles d’Hyménoptères Mellifères. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 39 (7), 106–110. https://doi.org/10.3406/bsef.1934.14709
  22. Benoist, R. (1935) Remarques sur quelques espèces du genre Megachile (Hym. Apidae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 104 (2), 97–108.
  23. Benoist, R. (1940) Remarques sur quelques espèces de Mégachiles, principalement de la faune française. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 109, 41–88.
  24. Benoist, R. (1959) Les Prosopis de France (Hyménoptères Apidés). Cahiers des Naturalistes, 15, 75–87.
  25. Biesmeijer, J.C., Roberts, S.P.M., Reemer, M., Ohlemüller, R., Edwards, M., Peeters, T., Schaffers, A.P., Potts, S.G., Kleukers, R., Thomas, C.D., Settele, J. & Kunin, W.E. (2006) Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science, 313, 351–354. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127863
  26. Blüthgen, P. (1922) Beiträge zur Synonymie der Bienengattung Halictus Latreille. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1922, 46–66. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.192219220105
  27. Blüthgen, P. (1923) Beiträge zur Systematik der Bienengattung Halictus Latr. (Hym.). Konowia, 2, 65–81 + 123–142.
  28. Blüthgen, P. (1925 [“1924“]) Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Bienengattung Halictus Latr II. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 90, 86–163.
  29. Bogusch, P. (2021) The cuckoo bees of the genus Epeolus Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the Middle East and North Africa with descriptions of two new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 84, 45–68. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.84.67049
  30. Bogusch, P. & Hadrava, J. (2018) The bees of the genera Epeolus Latreille, 1802 and Triepeolus Robertson, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Nomadinae: Epeolini) of Europe: taxonomy, identification key, distribution, and ecology. Zootaxa, 4437 (1), 1–60. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4437.1.1
  31. Bortolotti, L., Luthi, F., Flaminio, S., Bogo, G. & Sgolastra, F. (2018) First record of the Asiatic bee Megachile disjunctiformis in Europe. Bulletin of Insectology, 71, 143–149.
  32. Bossert, S., Wood, T.J., Patiny, S., Michez, D., Almeida, E.A.B., Minckley, R.L., Packer, L., Neff, J.L., Copeland, R.S., Straka, J., Pauly, A., Griswold, T., Brady, S.G., Danforth, B.N. & Murray, E.A. (2022) Phylogeny, biogeography and diversification of the mining bee family Andrenidae. Systematic Entomology, 47 (2), 283–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12530
  33. Brasero, N., Ghisbain, G., Lecocq, T., Michez, D., Valterová, I., Biella, P., Monfared, A., Williams, P.H., Rasmont, P. & Martinet, B. (2021) Resolving the species status of overlooked West‐Palaearctic bumblebees. Zoologica Scripta, 50 (5), 616–632. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12486
  34. Brooks, R. (1988) Systematics and Phylogeny of the Anthophorine Bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae; Anthophorini). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 53 (9), 436–575.
  35. Cameron, S.A. & Sadd, B.M. (2020) Global trends in bumble bee health. Annual Review of Entomology, 65, 209–232. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-111847
  36. Casolari, C. & Casolari, M.R. (1980) Collezione Imenotterologica di Massimiliano Spinola. Cataloghi I Museo regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, Torino, 165 pp.
  37. Caetano, G.H. de O., Chapple, D.G., Grenyer, R., Raz, T., Rosenblatt, J., Tingley, R., Böhm, M., Meiri, S. & Roll, U. (2022) Automated assessment reveals that the extinction risk of reptiles is widely underestimated across space and phylogeny. PLOS Biology, 20, e3001544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001544
  38. Campadelli, G. & Nobile, V. (2000) Un nuovo Sphecodes d’Italia (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae). Bollettino dell’Accademia Gioenia di scienze naturali in Catania, 33, 121–125.
  39. Catania, R., Nobile, V. & Bella, S. (2021) The species of Eucera Scopoli, subgenus Tetralonia Spinola from Sardinia (Italy) with new records and E. gennargentui sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 88, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.88.70819
  40. Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P.R. & Raven, P.H. (2020) Vertebrates on the brink as indicators of biological annihilation and the sixth mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117 (24), 13596–13602. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922686117
  41. Cockerell, T.D.A. (1922) New bees from Madeira islands. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 24, 31–32.
  42. Cowie, R.H., Bouchet, P. & Fontaine, B. (2022) The Sixth Mass Extinction: fact, fiction or speculation? Biological Reviews, 97 (2), 640–663. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12816
  43. Cross, I. & Wood, T.J. (2018) New data on the Iberian endemic bee genus Flavipanurgus Warncke (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae): ecological and genomic data reveal a hidden species. Zootaxa, 4521 (4), 563–572. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4521.4.5
  44. Curtis, P.G., Slay, C.M., Harris, N.L., Tyukavina, A. & Hansen, M.C. (2018) Classifying drivers of global forest loss. Science, 361 (6407), 1108–1111. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau3445
  45. Dalla Torre, K.V. (1896) Catalogus Hymenopterorum. Vol. 10. Apidae (Anthophila). Engelmann, G., Lipsiae, 643 pp.
  46. Dalla Torre, C.D. & Friese, H. (1894) Synonymischer Katalog der europäischen Schmarotzerbienen. Entomologisches Nachrichtenblatt, 20, 33–43.
  47. Danforth, B.N., Sauquet, H. & Pakcer, L. (1999) Phylogeny of the Bee Genus Halictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) Based on Parsimony and Likelihood Analyses of Nuclear EF-1a Sequence Data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 13 (3), 605–618. https://doi.org/10.1006/mpev.1999.0670
  48. Danforth, B.N., Cardinal, S., Praz, C., Almeida, E.A. & Michez, D. (2013) The impact of molecular data on our understanding of bee phylogeny and evolution. Annual Review of Entomology, 58, 57–78. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153633
  49. Dathe, H.H. (1980) Die Arten der Gattung Hylaeus F. in Europa (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Colletidae). Mitteilungen des Zoologischen Museums Berlin, 56, 207–294.
  50. Dathe, H.H. (2022) Contributions to a revision of the Hylaeus brevicornis group (Hymenoptera, Anthophila, Colletidae). Contribution to Entomology, 72 (1), 37–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/contrib.entomol.72.e87230
  51. Dathe, H.H. & Proshchalykin, M. Yu. (2017) Type revision of Asiatic bees of the genus Hylaeus F. described by Ferdinand Morawitz (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Colletidae). Zootaxa, 4227 (1), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4227.1.1
  52. De Queiroz, K. (2007) Species concepts and species delimitation. Systematic Biology, 56, 879–886. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150701701083
  53. Del Claro, K. & Dirzo, R. (2021) Impacts of Anthropocene defaunation on plant-animal interactions. In: Del-Claro, K. & Torezan-Silingardi, H.M. (Eds.), Plant-Animal Interactions. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 333–345. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66877-8_13
  54. Dirzo, R., Young, H.S., Galetti, M., Ceballos, G., Isaac, N.J.B. & Collen, B. (2014) Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science, 345 (6195), 401–406. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251817
  55. Dorchin, A. (2019) Taxonomic revision of the aequata-group of the subgenus Eucera s. str. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini). Zootaxa, 4652 (3), 457–472. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4652.3.3
  56. Dorchin, A., López-Uribe, M.M., Praz, C.J., Griswold, T. & Danforth, B.N. (2018) Phylogeny, new generic-level classification, and historical biogeography of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 119, 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.10.007
  57. Dorchin, A. & Praz, C.J. (2018) Taxonomic revision of the Western Palaearctic bees of the subgenus Pseudomegachile (Hymenoptera, Apiformes, Megachilidae, Megachile). Zootaxa, 4524 (3), 251–307. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4524.3.1.
  58. Dorchin, A. (2023) Revision of the historical type collections of long-horn bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini) preserved in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, New Series, 59 (2), 115–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2023.2192693
  59. Dours, J.A. (1872) Hyménoptères nouveaux du bassin Mediterranéen. Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, 23, 293–311 + 349–359 + 396–399 + 419–434.
  60. Dours, J.A. (1873) Hyménoptères du Bassin Méditerranéen Andrena (suite). Revue et Magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, 1, 274–325.
  61. Drossart, M., Rasmont, P., Vanormelingen, P., Dufrêne, M., Folschweiller, M., Pauly, A., Vereecken, N.J., Vray, S., Zambra, E., D’Haeseleer, J. & Michez, D. (2019) Belgian Red List of bees. Belgian Science Policy 2018. BRAIN-be (Belgian Research Action through Interdisciplinary Networks). Presse universitaire de l’Université de Mons, Mons, 140 pp.
  62. Dubitzky, A., Plant, J. & Schönitzer, J. (2010) Phylogeny of the bee genus Andrena Fabricius based on morphology (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 100, 137–202.
  63. Duchenne, F., Thébault, E., Michez, D., Gérard, M., Devaux, C., Rasmont, P., Vereecken, N.J. & Fontaine, C. (2020) Long-term effects of global change on occupancy and flight period of wild bees in Belgium. Global Change Biology, 26 (12), 6753–6766. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15379
  64. Ducke, A. (1899) Neue Arten und Varietäten der Gattung Osmia Panz. Entomologische Nachrichten, Berlin, 25, 211–215. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.48018990149
  65. Dufrêne, E. (2021) Description d’une nouvelle espèce de Nomada Scopoli, 1770, de France (Corse) (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 126 (4), 437–443. https://doi.org/10.32475/bsef_2184
  66. Ebmer, A.W. (1976) Halictus und Lasioglossum aus Marokko. Linzer biologische Beiträge, 8 (1), 205–266.
  67. Ebmer, A.W. (1995) Asiatische Halictidae, 3. Die Artengruppe der Lasioglossum carinate-Evylaeus (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictinae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 27 (2), 525–652.
  68. Ebmer, A.W. (1998) Asiatische Halictidae, 7. Neue Lasioglossum-Arten mit einer Übersicht der Lasioglossum s. str.-Arten der nepalischen und yunnanischen Subregion, sowie des nördlichen Zentral-China (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae: Halictinae). Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30 (1), 365–430.
  69. Ebmer, A.W. & Schwammberger, K.H. (1986) Die Bienengattung Rophites Spinola, 1808 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae: Dufoureinae). Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 66 (4), 271–304.
  70. Erichson, W.F. (1835) Beschreibung von 19 neuen Hymenopteren aus Andalusien. In: Waltl, J. (Ed.), Reise durch Tyrol, Oberitalien und Piemont nach dem südlichen Spanien. Vol. 2. Pustet, Passau, pp. 101–109.
  71. Erlandsson, S. (1987) The description of the hitherto unknown female of Hylaeus (Spatulariella) decipiens Förster, 1871 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Hyalinae). Entomofauna, 8 (24), 341–350.
  72. Eversmann, E. (1852) Fauna hymenopterologica volgo-uralensis (Continuatio). Bulletin de la Sociйtй Impériale Naturalistes de Moscou, 25, 3–137.
  73. Fabricius, J.C. (1787) Mantissa insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. Tome 1. Christ. Gottl. Proft, Hafniae [København], 348 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11657
  74. Falk, S., Jukes, A. & Paxton, R.J. (2017) The story behind Kirby’s Nomad Bee Nomada subcornuta (Kirby, 1802). BWARS Newsletter, Autumn 2017, 6–11.
  75. Falk, S., Johansson, N., Paxton, R.J. (2022) DNA and morphological characterisation of the Bilberry Mining Bee Nomada glabella sensu Stöckhert nec Thomson in Britain with discussion of the remaining variation within N. Panzeri. British Journal of Entomology & Natural History, 35 (2), 91–111.
  76. Fateryga, A.V., Ivanov, S.P. & Filatov, M.A. (2013) Stelis aculeata – a cleptoparasitic bee species new for the fauna of Europe and new findings of its presumable host, Hoplitis princeps (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the Crimea. Optimization and Protection of Ecosystems, 8, 61–65.
  77. Fateryga, A.V., Ivanov, S.P. & Filatov, M.A. (2018) Megachilid-bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) of the Crimean Peninsula. Entomofauna, 39 (1), 235–283.
  78. Fateryga, A.V. & Proshchalykin, M. Yu. (2020) New records of megachilid bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from the North Caucasus and the south of European Russia. Caucasian Entomological Bulletin, 16 (2), 225–231. https://doi.org/10.23885/181433262020162-225331
  79. Fateryga, A.V., Proshchalykin, M. Yu., Astafurova, Yu. V. & Popov I.B. (2018) New records of megachilid bees (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) from the North Caucasus and neighboring regions of Russia. Entomological Review, 98 (9), 1165–1174. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0013873818090026
  80. Ferrari, R.R., Onuferko, T.M., Monckton, S.K. & Packer, L. (2020) The evolutionary history of the cellophane bee genus Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and implications for a global infrageneric classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 146, 106750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106750
  81. Forister, M.L., Pelton, E.M. & Black, S.H. (2019) Declines in insect abundance and diversity: we know enough to act now. Conservation Science and Practice, 1 (8), e80. https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.80
  82. Förster, A. (1871) Monographie der Gattung Hylaeus F. (Latr.). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 21, 873–1084.
  83. Friese, H. (1887) Species aliquot novae generis Andrena Fabr. Természetrajzi Füzetek, 11, 21–26.
  84. Friese, H. (1896) Die Bienen Europa‘s (Apidae europaeae) nach ihren Gattungen, Arten und Varietäten auf vergleichend morphologisch-biologischer Grundlage Vol. 2. Solitare Apiden. Genus Eucera. R. Friedländer & Sohn, Berlin, 216 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.160173
  85. Friese, H. (1897) Monographie der Bienengattung Panurgus Panz. (Palaearktische Formen). Természetrajzi Füzetek, 20, 78–102.
  86. Friese, H. (1898) Die Bienen Europa’s (Apidae europaeae) nach ihren Gattungen, Arten und Varietäten auf vergleichend morphologisch-biologischer Grundlage. Theil IV: Solitäre Apiden: Genus Eriades. Genus Trachusa. Genus Anthidium. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Innsbruck, 316 pp.
  87. Friese, H. (1899) Neue palaearktische Sammelbienen. Entomologische Nachrichten, Berlin, 25, 321–346.
  88. Friese, H. (1900) Neue palaearktische Bienenarten. Entomologische Nachrichten, 26, 85–87.
  89. Friese, H. (1914) Neue Apiden der palaearktischen Region. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 75, 218–233. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.191419140311
  90. Frey-Gessner, E. (1908) Osmia mucida Dours (Hymen.). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 11, 280–283.
  91. Garibaldi, L.A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Winfree, R., Aizen, M.A., Bommarco, R., Cunningham, S.A., Kremen, C., Carvalheiro, L.G., Harder, L.D., Afik, O., Bartomeus, I., Benjamin, F., Boreux, V., Cariveau, D., Chacoff, N.P., Dudenhoffer, J.H., Freitas, B.M., Ghazoul, J., Greenleaf, S., Hipolito, J., Holzschuh, A., Howlett, B., Isaacs, R., Javorek, S.K., Kennedy, C.M., Krewenka, K.M., Krishnan, S., Mandelik, Y., Mayfield, M.M., Motzke, I., Munyuli, T., Nault, B.A., Otieno, M., Petersen, J., Pisanty, G., Potts, S.G., Rader, R., Ricketts, T.H., Rundlof, M., Seymour, C.L., Schuepp, C., Szentgyorgyi, H., Taki, H., Tscharntke, T., Vergara, C.H., Viana, B.F., Wanger, T.C., Westphal, C., Williams, N. & Klein, A.M. (2013) Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance. Science, 339 (6127), 1608–1611. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1230200
  92. Garnett, S.T. & Christidis, L. (2017) Taxonomy anarchy hampers conservation. Nature, 546, 25–27. https://doi.org/10.1038/546025a
  93. Garnett, S.T., Christidis, L., Conix, S., Costello, M.J., Zachos, F.E., Bánki, O.S., Bao, Y., Barik, S.K., Buckeridge, J.S., Hobern, D., Lien, A., Montgomery, N., Nikolaeva, S., Pyle, R.L., Thomson, S.A., Dijk, P.P. van, Whalen, A., Zhang, Z.-Q. & Thiele, K.R. (2020) Principles for creating a single authoritative list of the world’s species. PLOS Biology, 18 (7), e3000736. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000736
  94. Ghisbain, G. (2021) Are bumblebees relevant models for understanding wild bee decline? Frontiers in Conservation Science, 2, 752213. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcosc.2021.752213
  95. Ghisbain, G., Gérard, M., Wood, T.J., Hines, M.H., Michez, D. (2021a) Expanding insect pollinators in the Anthropocene. Biological Reviews, 96 (6), 2755–2770. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12777
  96. Ghisbain, G., Martinet, B., Wood, T.J., Przybyla, K., Cejas, D., Gérard, M., Rasmont, P., Monfared, A., Valterová, I. & Michez, D. (2021b) A worthy conservation target? Revising the status of the rarest bumblebee of Europe. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 14 (5), 661–674. https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12500
  97. Ghisbain, G., Radchenko, V.G., Cejas, D., Molina, F.P. & Michez, D. (2021c) Assessment and conservation status of an endemic bee in a diversity hotspot (Hymenoptera, Melittidae, Dasypoda). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 81, 127–142. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.81.60811
  98. Ghisbain, G. & Rasmont, P. (2022) European region in 2021. In: Williams, P.H. (Ed.), Bumblebee Specialist Sub Group Report 2020. IUCN Species Survival Commission, s.n., pp. 6–13.
  99. Gibbs, J., Brady, S., Kanda, K. & Danforth, B.N. (2012) Phylogeny of halictine bees supports a shared origin of eusociality for Halictus and Lasioglossum (Apoidea: Anthophila: Halictidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65 (3), 926–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.08.013
  100. Gibbs, J., Packer, L., Dumesh, S. & Danforth, B.N. (2013) Revision and reclassification of Lasioglossum (Evylaeus), L. (Hemihalictus) and L. (Sphecodogastra) in eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Zootaxa, 3672 (1), 1–117. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3672.1.1
  101. Grace, A. (2010) Introductory biogeography to bees of the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Bexhill Museum, Sussex, 284 pp.
  102. Gusenleitner, F. & Schwarz, M. (2002) Weltweite Checkliste der Bienengattung Andrena mit Bemerkungen und Ergänzungen zu paläarktischen Arten (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andreninae, Andrena). Entomofauna, Supplement 10, 1–1280.
  103. Hallmann, C.A., Zeegers, T., van Klink, R., Vermeulen, R., van Wielink, P., Spijkers, H., van Deijk, J., van Steenis, W. & Jongejans, E. (2020) Declining abundance of beetles, moths and caddisflies in the Netherlands. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 13 (2), 127–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12377
  104. Hautier, Y., Tilman, D., Isbell, F., Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T. & Reich, P.B. (2015) Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity. Science, 348 (6232), 336–340. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1788
  105. Howard, S.D. & Bickford, D.P. (2014) Amphibians over the edge: silent extinction risk of Data Deficient species. Diversity and Distributions, 20 (7), 837–846. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12218
  106. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature. ‘Fourth edition’. International Trust for zoological Nomenclature, London, xxix + 306 pp. [https://www.iczn.org/the-code/the-code-online/]
  107. IPBES (2019) s.n. In: Díaz, D., Settele, J., Brondízio, E.S., Ngo, H.T., Guèze, M., Agard, J., Arneth, A., Balvanera, P., Brauman, K.A., Butchart, S.H.M., Chan, K.M.A., Garibaldi, L.A., Ichii, K., Liu, J., Subramanian, S.M., Midgley, G.F., Miloslavich, P., Molnár, Z., Obura, D., Pfaff, A., Polasky, S., Purvis, A., Razzaque, J., Reyers, B., Roy Chowdhury, R., Shin, Y.J., Visseren-Hamakers, I.J., Willis, K.J. & Zayas, C.N. (Eds.), Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. IPBES secretariat, Bonn, pp. 1–56.
  108. Iuga, V.G. (1958) Fauna Republicii Populare Romîne. Hymenoptera Apoidea Fam. Apidae Subfam. Anthophorinae. Academia Republicii Populare Romîne, Bucarest, 270 pp.
  109. Ivanov, S.P. & Fateryga, A.V. (2019) First record of the invasive giant resin bee Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the Crimea. Far Eastern Entomologist, 395, 7–13. https://doi.org/10.25221/fee.395.2
  110. Ivanov, S.P., Fateryga, A.V. & Kobetskaya, M.A. (2013) The nesting biology of the bee Osmia dimidiata Morawitz, 1870 (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) in the Crimea. Entomological Review, 93 (6), 675–694. https://doi.org/10.1134/S001387381306002X
  111. Johansson, N. & Paukkunen, J. (2017) Osmia disjuncta Tkalců, 1995 – a bee species new to the Western Palaearctic (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Entomologisk Tidskrift, 138 (1), 25–32.
  112. Kasparek, M. (2015) The Cuckoo Bees of the Genus Stelis Panzer, 1806 in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. A Review and Identification Guide. Entomofauna, Supplement 18, 1–144.
  113. Kasparek, M. (2018) Taxonomic revision proves Trachusa pubescens (Morawitz, 1872) sensu lato to be a complex of allopatric and sympatric species in South-Eastern Europe and Western Asia (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthidiini). ZooKeys, 764, 111–144. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.764.24581
  114. Kasparek, M. (2019a) Bees in the genus Rhodanthidium: A review and identification guide. Entomofauna, Supplement 23, 1–128.
  115. Kasparek, M. (2019b) Eoanthidium nasicum (Apoidea: Anthidiini) in the Middle East: from microevolution towards speciation? Oriental Insects, 54 (4), 527–544. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.2019.1693438
  116. Kasparek, M. (2020a) Variation in Eoanthidium judaeense (Mavromoustakis, 1945) and E. clypeare (Morawitz, 1874) (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini) in the Middle East: semispecies or cases of geographic dimorphism? Zoology in the Middle East, 66 (2), 145–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2020.1729563
  117. Kasparek, M. (2020b) Revision of the West Palaearctic Trachusa interrupta species complex (Apoidea: Anthidiini) with description of four new species. Zootaxa, 4728 (1), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4728.1.1
  118. Kasparek, M. (2021) So different but nonetheless belonging to the same species: Multiple geographic clines explain the diverse forms of the anthidiine bee Rhodanthidum caturigense s.l. (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Organism Diversity and Evolution, 21 (4), 719–735. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-021-00510-2
  119. Kasparek, M. (2022) The Resin and Wool Carder Bees (Anthidiini) of Europe and Western Turkey. Identification ‐ Distribution ‐ Biology (Afranthidium, Anthidiellum, Anthidium, Eoanthidium, Icteranthidium, Pseudoanthidium, Rhodanthidium, Trachusa). Chimaira, Frankfurt. 292 pp.
  120. Kasparek, M., Wood, T.J., Ferreira, S. & Benarfa, N. (2023) Taxonomic status of the disjunct populations of the resin bee Anthidiellum breviusculum (Pérez, 1890) s.l. in the Mediterranean (Apoidea: Anthidiini). Journal of Natural History, 56, 45–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2022.2152749
  121. Kirby, W. (1802) Monographia Apum Angliae. II. J. Raw, Ipswich, 388 pp.
  122. Kratochwil, A. (2020) Revision of the Andrena wollastoni group (Hymenoptera, Anthophila, Andrenidae) from the Madeira Archipelago and the Canary Islands: upgrading of three former subspecies and a description of three new subspecies. Linzer biologische Beiträge, 52 (1), 161–244.
  123. Kratochwil, A., Schwabe, A. & Scheuchl, E. (2014) Andrena (Suandrena) portosanctana Cockerell, 1922 and A. (Suandrena) maderensis Cockerell, 1922 – new taxonomical and ecological data for two closely related endemic bee species of the Madeira Archipelago, Portugal. Linzer biologische Beiträge, 46 (2), 1535–1567.
  124. Kriechbaumer, J. (1877) Bombus Mocsáryi n. sp. Stettin entomologische Zeitung, 38, 253–254.
  125. Kuhlmann, M., Dathe, H.H., Ebmer, A. W., Hartmann, P., Michez, D., Müller, A., Patiny, S., Pauly, A., Praz, C., Rasmont, P., Risch, S., Scheuchl, E., Schwarz, M., Terzo, M., Williams, P.H., Amiet, F., Baldock, D., Berg, Ø., Bogusch, P., Calabuig, I., Cederberg, B., Gogala, A., Gusenleitner, F., Józan, Z., Madsen, H.B., Nilsson, A., Ødegaard, F., Ortiz-Sanchez, F.J., Paukkunen, J., Pawlikowski, T., Quaranta, M., Roberts, S. P. M., Sáropataki, M., Schwenninger, H.-R., Smit, J., Söderman, G., Tomozei, B. (2022) Checklist of the Western Palaearctic Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Available from: http://westpalbees.myspecies.info (accessed 17 July 2022)
  126. Kuhlmann, M. & Smit, J. (2018) Description of a new bee species from Spain, Colletes jansmiti Kuhlmann nov. sp., with a key to the females of the C. albomaculatus-group (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 50 (2), 1249–1254.
  127. Kuhlmann, M. & Proshchalykin, M.Yu (2014) The bees of the genus Colletes Latreille 1802 of the European part of Russia, with keys to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). Zootaxa, 3878 (3), 201–247. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.3.1
  128. Lanner, J., Gstöttenmayer, F., Curto, M., Geslin, B., Huchler, K., Orr, M.C., Pachinger, B., Sedivy, C. & Meimberg, H. (2021) Evidence for multiple introductions of an invasive wild bee species currently under rapid range expansion in Europe. BMC Ecology and Evolution 21, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01729-x
  129. Le Divelec, R. (2021a) Sur la présence en France de certaines espèces d’Apoïdes (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Colletidae, Megachilidae, Psenidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 126 (1), 103–122. https://doi.org/10.32475/BSEF_2176
  130. Le Divelec, R. (2021b) The West Palaearctic Epeolini Linsley & Michener, 1939 housed in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris) with some taxonomic notes (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Nomadinae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 57 (4), 313–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2021.1942206
  131. Le Divelec, R. (2022) A taxonomic account on the Hylaeus gibbus species-group (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 58 (3), 229–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2022.2085627
  132. Le Féon, V., Genoud, D. & Geslin, B. (2021) Actualisation des connaissances sur l’abeille Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853 en France et en Europe (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Osmia, 9, 25–36. https://doi.org/10.47446/OSMIA9.4
  133. Le Goff, G. & Gonçalves, A.R. (2018) Une nouvelle espèce de Protosmia Ducke, 1900 découverte au Portugal: Protosmia (Protosmia) lusitanica nov. sp. (Apoidea, Megachilidae, Osmiini). Entomofauna, 39 (9), 187–191.
  134. LeBuhn, G. & Vargas Luna, J. (2021) Pollinator decline: what do we know about the drivers of solitary bee declines? Current Opinion in Insect Science, 46, 106–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2021.05.004
  135. Leclercq, J. (1964) Données pour un atlas des Hyménoptères d’Europe occidentale. I. Abeilles du genre Prosopis Fabricius. Bulletin de L’Institut Agronomiques et des Stations de Recherches de Gembloux, 32, 36–70.
  136. Lecocq, T., Biella, P., Martinet, B. & Rasmont, P. (2019) Too strict or too loose? Integrative taxonomic assessment of Bombus lapidarius complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Zoologica Scripta, 49 (2), 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12402
  137. Lecocq, T., Brasero, N., De Meulemeester, T., Michez, D., Dellicour, S., Lhomme, P., de Jonghe, R., Valterová, I., Urbanová, K. & Rasmont, P. (2014) An integrative taxonomic approach to assess the status of Corsican bumblebees: implications for conservation: Integrative taxonomy and conservation of insular bumblebees. Animal Conservation, 18 (3), 236–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12164
  138. Lecocq, T., Dellicour, S., Michez, D., Dehon, M., Dewulf, A., De Meulemeester, T., Brasero, N., Valterová, I., Rasplus, J.-Y. & Rasmont, P. (2015) Methods for species delimitation in bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus): towards an integrative approach. Zoologica Scripta, 44 (3), 281–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12107
  139. Lecocq, T., Dellicour, S., Michez, D., Lhomme, P., Vanderplanck, M., Valterová, I., Rasplus, J.-Y. & Rasmont, P. (2013) Scent of a break-up: phylogeography and reproductive trait divergences in the red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13, 263. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-263
  140. Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, A.L.M. (1841) Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères. Tome Second. Librairie encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 680 pp.
  141. Levchenko, T.V., Byvaltsev, A.M. & Proshchalykin, M. Yu. (2017) 78. Family Apidae. In: Belokobylskij, S.A. & Lelej, A.S. (Eds.), Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Volume I. Symphyta and Apocrita: Aculeata. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Supplement 6 (475), pp. 309–332.
  142. Lhomme, P., Michez, D., Christmann, S., Scheuchl, E., Abdouni, I.E., Hamroud, L., Ihsane, O., Sentil, A., Smaili, M.C., Schwarz, M., Dathe, H.H., Straka, J., Pauly, A., Schmid-Egger, C., Patiny, S., Terzo, M., Müller, A., Praz, C., Risch, S., Kasparek, M., Kuhlmann, M., Wood, T.J., Bogusch, P., Ascher, J.S. & Rasmont, P. (2020) The wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Morocco. Zootaxa 4892 (1), 1–159. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4892.1.1
  143. Lieftinck M.A. (1968) A review of Old World Species of Thyreus Panzer (=Crocisa Jurine) (Hym., Apoidea, Anthophoridae). Part 4. Palearctic Species. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 98 (1), 1–139, 4 pls.
  144. Lieftinck, M.A. (1980) Prodrome to a monograph of the Palaearctic species of the genus Melecta Latreille 1802 (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 123 (6), 129–349.
  145. Lister, B.C. & Garcia, A. (2018) Climate-driven declines in arthropod abundance restructure a rainforest food web. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115 (44), E10397–E10406. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1722477115
  146. Litman, J.R., Fateryga, A.V., Griswold, T.L., Aubert, M., Proshchalykin, M. Yu., Le Divelec, R., Burrows S. & Praz, C.J. (2021) Paraphyly and low levels of genetic divergence in morphologically distinct taxa: revision of the Pseudoanthidium scapulare complex of carder bees (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 195 (4), 1287–1337. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlab062
  147. Loboda, S., Savage, J., Buddle, C.M., Schmidt, N.M. & Høye, T.T. (2018) Declining diversity and abundance of High Arctic fly assemblages over two decades of rapid climate warming. Ecography, 41 (2), 265–277. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02747
  148. Mace, G.M. (2004) The role of taxonomy in species conservation. In: Godfray, H.C.J. & Knapp, S. (Eds.), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 359 (1444), pp. 711–719. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1454
  149. Maghni, N., Louadi, K., Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J. & Rasmont, P. (2017) Les Anthophores de la région des Aurès (nord-est de l’Algérie) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Anthophorini). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, New Series, 53 (1), 55–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2017.1305916
  150. Martinet, B., Lecocq, T., Brasero, N., Biella, P., Urbanová, K., Valterová, I., Cornalba, M., Gjershaug, J.O., Michez, D. & Rasmont, P. (2018a) Following the cold: geographical differentiation between interglacial refugia and speciation in the arcto-alpine species complex Bombus monticola (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematic Entomology, 43 (1), 200–217. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12268
  151. Martinet, B., Brasero, N., Lecocq, T., Biella, P., Valterova, I., Michez, D. & Rasmont, P. (2018b) Adding attractive semio-chemical trait refines the taxonomy of Alpinobombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Apidologie, 49 (6), 838–851. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-018-0611-1
  152. Matias, D.M.S., Leventon, J., Rau, A.-L., Borgemeister, C. & von Wehrden, H. (2017) A review of ecosystem service benefits from wild bees across social contexts. Ambio, 46, 456–467. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0844-z
  153. Mavromoustakis, G. A. (1963) On some parasitic bees. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. 13, 5 (60), 751–754. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222936208651311
  154. Michener, C.D. (2000) The bees of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London, xiv + [i] + 913 pp., 16 pls.
  155. Michener, C.D. (2007) The bees of the world. 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, xvi + [i] + 953 pp., 20 pls.
  156. Michez, D., Rasmont, P., Terzo, M. & Vereecken, N.J. (2019) Bees of Europe. Hymenoptera of Europe 1. N.A.P. Editions, Verrières-le-Buisson, 547 pp.
  157. Morawitz, F.F. (1875) Zur Bienenfauna der Caucasusländer. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 12 (1), 3–69.
  158. Müller, A. (1996) Host-plant specialization in Western Palearctic Anthidiine Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae). Ecological Monographs, 66 (2), 235–257. https://doi.org/10.2307/2963476
  159. Müller, A. (2014) Palaearctic Hoplitis bees of the subgenera Chlidoplitis and Megahoplitis (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa, 3765 (1), 161–174. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3355.1.2
  160. Müller, A. (2015) Palaearctic Chelostoma bees of the subgenus Gyrodromella (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa, 3936 (3), 408–420. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3936.3.6
  161. Müller, A. (2016) Hoplitis (Hoplitis) galichicae spec. nov., a new osmiine bee species from Macedonia with key to the European representatives of the Hoplitis adunca species group (Megachilidae, Osmiini). Zootaxa, 4111 (2), 167–176. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4111.2.5
  162. Müller, A. (2020) Palaearctic Osmia bees of the subgenera Hemiosmia, Tergosmia and Erythrosmia (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa 4778 (2), 201–236. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4778.2.1
  163. Müller, A. (2022) Palaearctic Osmiine Bees, ETH Zürich. Available from: http://blogs.ethz.ch/osmiini (accessed 4 November 2022).
  164. Müller, A. & Griswold, T. (2017) Osmiine bees of the genus Haetosmia (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa, 4358 (2), 351–364. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4358.2.8
  165. Müller, A. & Mauss, V. (2016) Palaearctic Hoplitis bees of the subgenera Formicapis and Tkalcua (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa, 4127 (1), 105–120. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4127.1.5
  166. Müller, A., Mauss, V. & Prosi, R. (2017) Unique nest architecture in the North African osmiine bee Hoplitis (Hoplitis) mucida (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 60, 99–109. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.60.20218
  167. Müller, A. & Trunz, V. (2014) Palaearctic osmiine bees of the genera Hofferia and Stenoheriades (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species. Zootaxa, 3765 (2), 175–186. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3765.2.5
  168. Nadig, A. & Nadig, A. (1933) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hymenopterenfauna von Marokko und Westalgerien. Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Graubünden, 71, 37–107.
  169. Nieto, A., Roberts, S.P.M., Kemp, J., Rasmont, P., Kuhlmann, M., García Criado, M., Biesmeijer, J.C., Bogusch, P., Dathe, H.H., De la Rúa, P., De Meulemeester, T., Dehon, M., Dewulf, A., Ortiz-Sánchez, F. J., Lhomme, P., Pauly, A., Potts, S.G., Praz, C., Quaranta, M., Radchenko, V.G., Scheuchl, E., Smit, J., Straka, J., Terzo, M., Tomozii, B., Window, J. & Michez, D. (2014) European Red List of Bees. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 84 pp. https://doi.org/10.2779/77003
  170. Nobile, V. (1996 [“1995”]) Api (Insecta, Hymenoptera) nuove o poco note di Sicilia e di Sardegna. Bollettino dell’Accademia Gioenia di scienze naturali in Catania, 28, 147–159.
  171. Nobile, V. (2000) Le Andrene W-paleartiche con due celle cubitali (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Andrenidae) con descrizione di Parandrena iohannescaroli sp. n. Bollettino delle sedute della Accademia gioenia di scienze naturali in Catania, 33, 35–42.
  172. Nobile, V. & Tomarchio, S. (1998) Contributo alla conoscenza degli Apoidei di Sicilia. XV. Il genere Spatulariella Popov, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Hylaeinae) con descrizione di una nuova specie. Bollettino dell’Accademia Gioenia di scienze naturali in Catania, 30, 291–298.
  173. Nobile, V. & Turrisi, G.F. (2004) Contribution to the knowledge of Italian cleptoparasitic Bees. X. The genus Sphecodes Latreille, “pinguiculus Pérez” group, with description of new species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae). Entomofauna, 25 (8), 117–132.
  174. Nobile, V. & Turrisi, G.F. (2013) Remarks on the genus Sphecodes Latreille, 1804, pinguiculus Pérez, 1903 species-group (Hymenoptera Apidae) from Italy: a reply to the article of Schwarz & Gusenleitner (2012). Biodiversity Journal, 4 (4), 565–570.
  175. Noskiewicz, J. (1962) Drei neue paläarktische Arten der Gattung Stelis Panz. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Polish Journal of Entomology, 32, 54–68.
  176. Ollerton, J., Winfree, R. & Tarrant, S. (2011) How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos, 120 (3), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18644.x
  177. Onuferko, T.M., Packer, L. & Genaro, J.A. (2021) Brachymelecta Linsley, 1939, previously the rarest North American bee genus, was described from an aberrant specimen and is the senior synonym for Xeromelecta Linsley, 1939. European Journal of Taxonomy, 754 (1), 1–51. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.754.1393
  178. Onuferko, T.M., Bogusch, P., Ferrari, R.R. & Packer, L. (2019) Phylogeny and biogeography of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epeolus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and cophylogenetic analysis with its host bee genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 141, 106603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106603
  179. Ornosa, C. & Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J. (2004) Hymenoptera, Apoidea I. Fauna Ibérica. Vol. 23. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, 556 pp.
  180. Orr, M.C., Pitts, J.P. & Griswold, T. (2018) Revision of the bee group Anthophora (Micranthophora) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with notes on potential conservation concerns and a molecular phylogeny of the genus. Zootaxa, 4511 (1), 1–193. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4511.1.1
  181. Orr, M.C., Ferrari, R.R., Hughes, A.C., Chen, J., Ascher, J.S., Yan, Y.H., Williams, P.H., Zhou, X., Bai, M., Rudoy, A., Zhang, F., Ma, K.P. & Zhu, C.D. (2021) Taxonomy must engage with new technologies and evolve to face future challenges. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 5 (1), 3–4. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01360-5
  182. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J. (2011) Lista actualizada de las especies de abejas de España (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 49, 265–281.
  183. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J. (2020) Checklist de Fauna Ibérica. Serie Anthophila (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea) en la península ibérica e islas Baleares (edición 2020). In: Ramos, M.A. & Sánchez Ruiz, M. (Eds.), Documentos Fauna Ibérica, 14. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, pp. 2 (sn) + 1–83.
  184. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., & Baquero, E. (2021) Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, 1853: nuevos e interesantes datos de distribución en la península ibérica (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Boletín de la SEA, 69, 257–258.
  185. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., Ornosa, C. & Dathe, H.H. (2002) Catálogo sinonímico de los Colletidae ibéricos. I, subfamilia Hylaeinae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomofauna, 23 (21), 249–266.
  186. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., Ornosa, C. & Dathe, H.H. (2003) Claves de identificación para las especies ibéricas del género Hylaeus Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae). Boletín de la Asociación española de Entomología, 27 (1–4), 169–207.
  187. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., Ornosa, C. & Torres, F. (2012) Especies ibéricas de los géneros Lithurgus Berthold, 1827, Creightonella Cockerell, 1908 y Chalicodoma Lepeletier, 1841 (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): claves de identificación y nuevos datos de distribución. Graellsia, 68 (1), 181–206. https://doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2012.v68.059
  188. Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J. (2020) Checklist de Fauna Ibérica. Serie Anthophila (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea) en la península ibérica e islas Baleares (Edición 2020). In: Ramos M.A. & Sánchez Ruiz M. (Eds.), Documentos Fauna Ibérica. Vol. 14. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, pp. 1–83.
  189. Osytshnjuk, A.Z. (1994) New subspecies of the Palaearctic Andrena bees (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Vestnik zoologii, 28 (1), 30–36. [in Russian]
  190. Patiny, S. (1999) Description d’une nouvelle espece de Flavipanurgus Warncke, 1972. Notes fauniques de Gembloux, 37, 57–61.
  191. Pauly, A. & Belval, S. (2017) Atlas des Halictidae de France (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 53, 1–34.
  192. Pauly, A. & Ortiz-Sanchez, F. (2017) Contribution à la connaissance des Halictinae d’Espagne, avec un atlas des espèces de la Péninsule Ibérique (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 54, 1–92.
  193. Pauly, A., Noel, G., Sonet, G., Notton, D. & Boevé, J. (2019) Integrative taxonomy resuscitates two species in the Lasioglossum villosulum complex (Kirby, 1802) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). European Journal of Taxonomy, 541, 1–43. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.541
  194. Pérez, J. (1895) Espèces nouvelles de Mellifères de Barbarie. (Diagnoses préliminaires). Gounouilhou Ed., Bordeaux, 65 pp.
  195. Pérez, J. (1902) Espèces nouvelles de Mellifères (paléarctiques). Procès-verbaux Socieìteì linneìenne de Bordeaux, 57, 174–180.
  196. Pesenko, Yu. A. (1972) Contributions to the fauna and ecology of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in steppes of the Lower Don basin. Report II. The family Halictidae. Entomologicheskoe Obozreniye, 51 (2), 282–295. [in Russian]
  197. Pesenko, Yu. A. (2004a) The phylogeny and classification of the tribe Halictini, with special reference to the Halictus genus-group (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 13 (1), 83–113. https://doi.org/10.31610/zsr/2004.13.1.83
  198. Pesenko, Yu. A. (2004b) New data on the taxonomy and distribution of bees of the subfamily Nomioidinae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society, 75 (1), 283–295. [In Russian]
  199. Peters, D.S. (1975) Über kanarische Osmiinae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica, Frankfurt, 56, 47–56.
  200. Pisanty, G., Richter, R., Martin, T., Dettman, J. & Cardinal, S. (2022) Molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and revised classification of andrenine bees (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 170, 107151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107151
  201. Pittioni, B. (1950) Die westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattung Spatulariella Pop. (Hym., Apoidea, Colletidae). Bollettino della Società Veneziana di Storia naturale, 5, 76–113.
  202. Potts, S.G., Imperatriz-Fonseca, V., Ngo, H.T., Aizen, M.A., Biesmeijer, J.C., Breeze, T.D., Dicks, L.V., Garibaldi, L.A., Hill, R., Settele, J. & Vanbergen, A.J. (2016) Safeguarding pollinators and their values to human well-being. Nature, 540, 220–229. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20588
  203. Potts, S., Dauber, J., Hochkirch, A., Oteman, B., Roy, D., Ahnre, K., Biesmeijer, K., Breeze, T., Carvell, C., Ferreira, C., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Isaac, N., Kuussaari, M., Ljubomirov, T., Maes, J., Ngo, H., Pardo, A., Polce, C., Quaranta, M., Settele, J., Sorg, M., Stefanescu, C. & Vujic, A. (2020) Proposal for an EU Pollinator Monitoring Scheme. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, JRC122225. https://doi.org/10.2760/881843
  204. Praz, C. (2017) Subgeneric classification and biology of the leafcutter and dauber bees (genus Megachile Latreille) of the western Palearctic (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 55, 1–54. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.55.11255
  205. Praz, C., Al-Shahat, A.M. & Gadallah, N.S. (2021) Taxonomic revision of the subgenus Eutricharaea Thomson in Egypt, with a key to the species and the description of two new species (Hymenoptera, Anthophila, Megachilidae, genus Megachile Latreille). Zootaxa, 5032 (3), 301–330. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5032.3.1
  206. Praz, C. & Bénon, D. (2023) Revision of the leachella group of Megachile subgenus Eutricharaea in the Western Palaearctic (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae): A renewed plea for DNA barcoding type material. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 95: 143–198. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.95.96796
  207. Praz, C., Müller, A. & Genoud, D. (2019) Hidden diversity in European bees: Andrena amieti sp. n., a new Alpine bee species related to Andrena bicolor (Fabricius, 1775) (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Andrenidae). Alpine Entomology, 3, 11–38. https://doi.org/10.3897/alpento.3.29675
  208. Praz, C., Genoud, D., Vaucher, K., Bénon, D., Monks, J. & Wood, T.J. (2022) Unexpected levels of cryptic diversity in European bees of the genus Andrena subgenus Taeniandrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae): implications for conservation. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 91, 375–428. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.91.82761
  209. Proshchalykin, M. Yu. & Astafurova, Yu. V. (2012) Halictid bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea: Halictidae) of Ukraine: fauna and zonal distribution. A.I. Kurentsov’s Annual Memorial Meetings, 23, 93–113. [In Russian]
  210. Proshchalykin, M. Yu. & Astafurova, Yu. V. (2017) 76. Family Melittidae. In: Belokobylskij, S.A. & Lelej, A.S. (Eds.), Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Vol. I. Symphyta and Apocrita: Aculeata. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Supplement 6, pp. 293–294.
  211. Proshchalykin, M. Yu. & Kuhlmann, M. (2020) New data on bees of the genus Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) from Russia. Far Eastern Entomologist, 406, 21–26. https://doi.org/10.25221/fee.406.3
  212. Proshchalykin, M. Yu., Astafurova, Yu. V., Levchenko, T.V., Shlyakhtenok, A.S. & Schwarz, M. (2019) The species-group names of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) described from Crimea, North Caucasus, European part of Russia and Ural. Part III. Families Melittidae and Apidae (Except Bombus Latreille and Apis Linnaeus). Far Eastern Entomologist, 396, 17–44. https://doi.org/10.25221/fee.396.3
  213. Proshchalykin, M. Yu., Astafurova, Y.A., Schwarz, M., Levchenko, T.V. & Byvaltsev, A.M. (2017) New records to the bee fauna of Russia (Hymenoptera, Apiformes). Far Eastern Entomologist, 337, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.25221/fee.337.2
  214. Proshchalykin, M. Yu. & Dathe, H.H. (2021) New and little-known bees of the genus Hylaeus Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) from the Caucasus region. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 84, 169–185. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.84.68250
  215. Quaranta, M., Cornalba, M., Biella, P., Comba, M., Battistoni, A., Rondinini, C.& Teofili, C. (2018) Lista Rossa IUCN Delle Api Italiane Minacciate (IUCN Red List of Italian Threatened Bees). Comitato Italiano IUCN e Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, 67 pp.
  216. Radchenko, V.G. (2017) A new bee species of the genus Dasypoda Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) from Portugal with comparative remarks on the subgenus Heterodasypoda Michez. Zootaxa, 4350 (1), 164–176. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4350.1.10
  217. Radoszkowski, O.I. (1893) Revue des armures copulatrices des mâles des genres Crocisa Jur., Melecta Lat., Pseudomelecta Rad., Chrysantheda Pert., Mesocheira Lep., Aglae Lep., Melissa Smith, Euglossa Lat., Eulema Lep., Acanthopus Klug. Bulletin de la Socieìteì impeìriale des naturalistes de Moscou, 7 (2/3), 163–190, 4 pls.
  218. Rasmont, P. (1983) Catalogue commenté des bourdons de la région ouest-paléarctique (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombinae). Notes fauniques de Gembloux, 7, 1–72.
  219. Rasmont, P., Devalez, J., Pauly, A., Michez, D. & Radchenko, V.G. (2017) Addition to the checklist of IUCN European wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, New Series, 53 (1), 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2017.1307696
  220. Rasmont, P., Ghisbain, G. & Terzo, M. (2021) Bumblebees of Europe and neighbouring regions. Verrières le Buisson, NAP Editions, 632 pp.
  221. Rasmussen, C., Dupont, Y.L., Madsen, H. B., Bogusch, P., Goulson, D., Herbertsson, L., Maia, K.P., Nielsen, A., Olesen, J.M., Potts, S.G., Roberts, S.P.M., Sydenham, M.A.K. & Kryger, P. (2021) Evaluating competition for forage plants between honey bees and wild bees in Denmark. PLoS ONE, 16 (4), e0250056. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250056
  222. Raven, P.H. & Wagner, D.L. (2021) Agricultural intensification and climate change are rapidly decreasing insect biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118 (2), e2002548117. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002548117
  223. Rebmann, O. (1968) 3. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gattung Megachile Latr. (Hym. Apidae): Subgenus Eutricharaea und seine bisher bekanntgewordenen Arten. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 15 (1–3), 21–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.19680150105
  224. Rebmann, O. (1970) Neue und wenig bekannte Arten der Untergattungen Eutricharaea Thomson und Neoeutricharaea Rebmann. 5. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gattung Megachile (Hym., Apidae). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 217, 1–10.
  225. Reinig, W.F. (1965) Die Verbreitungsgeschichte zweier fur die Apenninen neuer boreoalpinen Hummelarten mit einem Versuch der Gliederung boreoalpiner Verbreitungsformen. Jahrbücher Abteilung fur Systernatik, 92, 703–742.
  226. Ribas-Marquès, E. & Díaz-Calafat, J. (2021) The Asian giant resin bee Megachile sculpturalis Smith 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae), a new exotic species for the bee fauna of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Journal of Apicultural Research, 60 (3), 506–511. https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2021.1874177
  227. Romankova, T.G., & Astafurova, Yu. V. (2011) Bees of the genus Panurginus in Siberia, Far East of Russia, and allied areas (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae, Panurginae). Zootaxa, 3112 (1), 1–35. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3112.1.1
  228. Rossi, P. (1790) Fauna Etrusca, sistens Insecta quae in provinciis Florentina et Pisana praesertim collegit. Vol. 2. Masi, Liburni [Livorno], 348 pp. [Bees, pp. 96–112]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.128484
  229. Schenck A (1853) Nachtrag zu der Beschreibung nassauischer Bienenarten. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, 9, 88–307.
  230. Scheper, J., Reemer, M., van Kats, R., Ozinga, W.A., van der Linden, G.T.J., Schaminée, J.H.J., Siepel, H. & Kleijn, D. (2014) Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (49), 17552–17557. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1412973111
  231. Scheuchl, E. (2000) Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Wildbienen Deutschlands und Österreichs. Band I: Anthophoridae. 2nd Edition. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 158 pp.
  232. Scheuchl, E. & Willner, W. (2016) Taschenlexikon der Wildbienen Mitteleuropas. Alle Arten im Porträt. Quelle & Meyer Verlag, Wiebelsheim, 920 pp.
  233. Schmid-Egger, C. (2005) Proxiandrena subgen. nov. und Revision der west- und zentralpaläarktischen Arten der Andrena proxima-Gruppe (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 112 (4), 1029–1044. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.80335
  234. Schmid-Egger, C. & Patiny, S. (1997) Anmerkungen zur Andrena-pilipes-Gruppe (=carbonaria auct.). Bembix, 8, 37–42.
  235. Schmidt, S., Schmid-Egger, C., Morinière, J., Haszprunar, G. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2015) DNA barcoding largely supports 250 years of classical taxonomy: identifications for Central European bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea partim). Molecular Ecology Resources, 15 (4), 985–1000. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.12363
  236. Schulthess-Rechberg, A.V. (1886) Zur Hummelfauna Corsica’s. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 7, 272–277.
  237. Schwarz, M. (1981) 1. Beitrag zur Nomada-Fauna der Türkei (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomofauna, 2, 357–414.
  238. Schwarz, M. (1999) Beiträge zur Kenntnis parasitärer Bienen (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Entomofauna, 20 (12), 257–261.
  239. Schwarz, M. & Gusenleitner, F. (2012) Zur Kenntnis der von Nobile V. & G.F. Turrisi (2004) aus Italien beschriebenen Sphecodes-Arten (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Entomofauna, 33 (8), 73–80.
  240. Schwarz, M. & Gusenleitner, F.J. (2015) Über den Verbleib der von Schmiedeknecht 1882 beschriebenen Nomada-Arten und Festlegung von Lectotypen der aufgefundenen Arten. Mit zusätzlichen Ergänzungen und Beschreibungen zu einigen Arten (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Nomadinae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 47 (1), 1003–1044.
  241. Schwarz, M. & Gusenleitner, F. (2017) Nomada pilosa nov.sp., eine neue paläarktische Wespenbiene (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 49 (1), 979–983.
  242. Schwarz, M. & Smit J. (2018) Neue paläarktische Wespenbienen der Gattung Nomada Scopoli, 1770 (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Entomofauna, 39/2 (21), 881–908.
  243. Schwarz, M. & Smit, J. (2020) Fünf neue Nomada-Arten aus der West-Paläarktis (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 52 (1), 683–694.
  244. Schwarz, M. & Smit, J. (2021) Zur Klärung der Synonymie der Nomada longipalpis Schwarz & Smit, 2020 (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 53 (2), 755–756.
  245. Schwarz, M., Smit, J. & Gusenleitner, F. (2018) Zur Kenntnis paläarktischer Bienen der Gattung Nomada Scopoli, 1770 (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 50 (2), 1403–1445.
  246. Schwarz, M., Smit, J. & Ockermüller, E. (2019) Weitere neue paläarktische Bienen aus der Gattung Nomada Scopoli, 1770 (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomofauna, 40/1 (1), 3–29.
  247. Sitdikov, A.A. & Pesenko, Yu. A. (1988) The subgeneric classification of bees of the genus Eucera Scopoli (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae), with a scheme of the phylogenetic relationships between the subgenera. Trudy Zooogicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 175, 75–101. [in Russian]
  248. Skorikov, A.S. (1922) Shmeli paleartiki. Chast I. Obshchaya biologiya (so vklyucheniem zoogeografii). Izvestiya Severnoi Oblastnoi Stantsii Zashchity Rastenii ot Vreditelei, 4, 1–160.
  249. Smit, J. (2018) Identification key to the European species of the bee genus Nomada Scopoli, 1770 (Hymenoptera: Apidae), including 23 new species. Entomofauna, Monographie 3, 1–253.
  250. Soltani, G.G., Bénon, D., Alvarez, N. & Praz, C.J. (2017) When different contact zones tell different stories: putative ring species in the Megachile concinna species complex (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 121 (4), 815–832. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blx023
  251. Stöckert, F.K. (1954) Fauna Apoideorum Germaniae. Abhandlungen Bayerischen Akademie Wissenschaften, 65, 1–87.
  252. Storch, D., Šímová, I., Smyčka, J., Bohdalková, E., Toszogyova, A. & Okie, J.G. (2022) Biodiversity dynamics in the Anthropocene: how human activities change equilibria of species richness. Ecography, 2022 (4), e05778. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.05778
  253. Straka, J. & Bogusch, P. (2011) Contribution to the taxonomy of the Hylaeus gibbus species group in Europe (Hymenoptera, Apoidea and Colletidae). Zootaxa, 2932 (1), 51–67. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2932.1.6
  254. Strudwick, T. & Jacobi, B. (2018) The American Resin bee Megachile (Chelostomoides) otomita Cresson, 1878 established on Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain) (Hymenoptera, Anthophila). Ampulex, 10, 41–45.
  255. Theunert, R. (2013) Hylaeus (Hylaeus) mariannae sp. n., eine neue Bienenart von der Mittelmeerinsel Korsika (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins, 38 (1), 63–67.
  256. Thomson, C.G. (1870) XVI. Öfversigt af de i Sverige funna arter af Hylaeus, Halictus, Colletes och Rhophites. In: Thomson, C.G. (Ed.), Opuscula Entomologica, Part 2, 305–316.
  257. Thomson, C.G. (1872) Hymenoptera Scandinaviae. II. (Apis Lin.). Berling, Lundae.
  258. Tkalců, B. (1973) Vier für die Slowakei neu festgestellte Bienenarten (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Biologia, 28, 679–687.
  259. Tkalců, B. (1974) Ergebnisse der Albanien-Expedition 1961 des ‘Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes’. 89. Beitrag, Hymenoptera: Apoidea V (Megachilidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 24 (5/8), 323–348.
  260. Tkalců, B. (1977) Taxonomisches zu einigen paläarktischen Bienenarten (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Věstnik Československé Společnosti Zoologické, 41, 223–239.
  261. Tkalců, B. (1979) Neue paläarktische Taxa der Familie Megachilidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, Praha, 76, 318–339.
  262. Tkalců, B. (1988) Neue paläarktische Arten und Unterarten der Gattungen Chalicodoma und Megachile (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae). Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 52, 48–62.
  263. Turvey, S.T. & Crees, J.J. (2019) Extinction in the Anthropocene. Current biology, 29 (19), R982–R986. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.07.040
  264. Ungricht, S., Müller, A. & Dorn, S. (2008) A taxonomic catalogue of the Palaearctic bees of the tribe Osmiini (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae). Zootaxa, 1865 (1), 1–253. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1865.1.1
  265. Varnava, A.I., Roberts, S.P.M., Michez, D., Ascher, J.S., Petanidou, T., Dimitriou, S., Devalez, J., Pittara, M. & Stavrinides, M.C. (2020) The wild bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) of the island of Cyprus. ZooKeys, 924, 1–114. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.924.38328
  266. Wagner, D.L. (2020) Insect Declines in the Anthropocene. Annual Review of Entomology, 65, 457–480. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-011019-025151
  267. Wagner, D.L., Grames, E.M., Forister, M.L., Berenbaum, M.R. & Stopak, D. (2021) Insect decline in the Anthropocene: Death by a thousand cuts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118 (2), e2023989118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023989118
  268. Warncke, K. (1967) Beitrag zur Klärung paläarktischer Andrena-Arten (Hym. Apidae). Eos, Revista Espanola de Entomologia, 43, 171–318.
  269. Warncke, K. (1968) Die Untergattungen der westpaläarktischen Bienengattung Andrena F. Memórias e Estudos do Museu Zoológico da Universidade de Coimbra, 307, 1–110.
  270. Warncke, K. (1972) Beitrag zur Systematik und Verbreitung der Bienengattung Prosopis F. in der Westpaläarktis (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Colletidae). Bulletin des Recherches agronomiques de Gembloux, 5 (3–4), 745–768.
  271. Warncke, K. (1974) Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Sandbienen in Nordafrika (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Andrena). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 50, 3–54.
  272. Warncke, K. (1975a) Die Sandbienen der Türkei (Hymenoptera. Apoidea, Andrena). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 65, 29–102.
  273. Warncke, K. (1975b) Ergänzungen zu den Verbreitungskarten der Bienengattung Andrena in Frankreich (Hymenoptea, Andrenidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift, 85, 133–136.
  274. Warncke, K. (1975c) Die Bienengattung Andrena F., in Iberien (Hym. Apidae). Teil A. Eos, 49, 293–314.
  275. Warncke, K. (1979) Beiträge zur Bienenfauna des Iran: 3. Die Gattung Rophites Spin., mit einer Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Bienengattung Rophites Spin. Bollettino Museo Civico Storia Naturale di Venezia, 30, 111–155.
  276. Warncke, K. (1980) Die Bienengattung Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 in der Westpaläarktis und im turkestanischen Becken. Entomofauna, 1, 119–209.
  277. Warncke, K. (1981) Beitrag zur Bienenfauna des Iran 12. Die Gattung Prosopis F. mit Bemerkungen zu weiteren bekannten und unbekannten paläarktischen Arten. Bollettino di Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia, 31, 145–195.
  278. Warncke, K. (1983) Zur Kenntnis der Bienengattung Pasites Jurine, 1807, in der Westpaläarktis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Nomadinae). Entomofauna, 4 (21), 261–347.
  279. Warncke, K. (1986) Die Wildbienen Mitteleuropas ihre gültigen Namen und ihre Verbreitung (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Entomofauna, Supplement 3, 1–128.
  280. Warncke, K. (1987) Ergänzende Untersuchungen an den Bienen der Gattungen Panurgus und Melitturga/Andreninae, Apidae, vor allem dem türkischen Raum. Bolletino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia, 36, 75–107.
  281. Warncke, K. (1991) Die Bienengattung Osmia Panzer, 1806, ihre Systematik in der Westpaläarktis und ihre Verbreitung in der Türkei. 10. Die Untergattung Alcidamea Cress. Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 23 (2), 701–751.
  282. Warncke, K. (1992a) 2. Beitrag zur systematik und verbreitung der Bienengattung Prosopis F. in der Westpalärktis (Hym. Apidae). Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 24 (2), 747–801.
  283. Warncke, K. (1992b) Die Bienengattung Osmia Panzer, 1806 ihre Systematik in der Westpaläarktis und ihre Verbreitung in der Türkei. 11. Die Untergattung Pyrosmia Tkalcu, 1975. Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 24 (2), 893–921.
  284. Warncke, K. (1992c) Die westpaläarktischen Arten der Bienengattung Stelis Panzer, 1806 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Megachilinae). Entomofauna, 13 (22), 341–374.
  285. Warncke, K. (1993) Neue Bienen von der Kanarischen Inseln (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae und Anthophoridae Nomadinae). Veroffentlichungen aus dem Übersee-Museum Bremen, 12, 761–765.
  286. Williams, P.H., Byvaltsev, A.M., Cederberg, B., Berezin, M.V., Ødegaard, F., Rasmussen, C., Richardson, L.L., Huang, J., Sheffield, C.S. & Williams, S.T. (2015) Genes suggest ancestral colour polymorphisms are shared across morphologically cryptic species in arctic bumblebees. PLoS ONE, 10, e0144544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144544
  287. Williams, P.H., Altanchimeg, D., Byvaltsev, A., De Jonghe, R., Jaffar, S., Japoshvili, G., Kahono, S., Liang, H., Mei, M., Monfared, A., Nidup, T., Raina, R., Ren, Z., Thanoosing, C., Zhao, Y. & Orr, M.C. (2020) Widespread polytypic species or complexes of local species? Revising bumblebees of the subgenus Melanobombus world-wide (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus). European Journal of Taxonomy, 719 (1), 1–120. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.719.1107
  288. Wood, T.J. (2021) Revisions of the Andrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) fauna of Bulgaria and North Macedonia with description of three new species. Belgian Journal of Entomology, 117, 1–39.
  289. Wood, T.J. (2022) Two new overlooked bee species from Spain (Hymenoptera: Anthophila). Osmia, 10, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.47446/OSMIA10.1
  290. Wood, T.J. (2023a) New Old World Andrena species, with a focus on Turkey (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Zootaxa, 5266 (1), 1–72. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5266.1.1
  291. Wood T.J. (2023b) The genus Andrena in Belgium: revisions, clarifications, and a key for their identification (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 135, 1–63.
  292. Wood, T.J. (2023c) The genus Andrena Fabricius, 1775 in the Iberian Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 96, 241–484. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.96.101873
  293. Wood, T.J. & Cross, I. (2017) Camptopoeum (Camptopoeum) baldocki spec. nov., a new panurgine bee species from Portugal and a description of the male of Flavipanurgus fuzetus Patiny (Andrenidae: Panurginae). Zootaxa, 4254 (2), 285–293. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4254.2.9
  294. Wood, T.J. & Monfared, A. (2022) A revision of the Andrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) fauna of Iran, with the description of 17 new species. European Journal of Taxonomy, 843 (1), 1–136. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.843.1947
  295. Wood, T.J. & Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J. (2022) Description of three new Andrena Fabricius, 1775 species from understudied parts of Iberia (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 70, 114–123.
  296. Wood, T.J., Cross, I. & Baldock, D. (2020a) Updates to the bee fauna of Portugal with the description of three new Iberian Andrena species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Zootaxa, 4790 (2), 201–228. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4790.2.1
  297. Wood, T.J. & Le Divelec, R. (2022) Cryptic diversity revealed in a revision of West Palaearctic Nomiapis and Systropha (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Diversity, 14, (920). https://doi.org/10.3390/d14110920.
  298. Wood, T.J., Michez, D., Cejas, D., Lhomme, P. & Rasmont, P. (2020b) An update and revision of the Andrena fauna of Morocco (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae) with the description of 11 new North African species. Zookeys, 974, 31–92. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.974.54794
  299. Wood, T.J., Ghisbain, G., Michez, D. & Praz, C. (2021) Revisions to the Andrena faunas of the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco with the description of four new species (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). European Journal of Taxonomy, 758 (1), 147–193. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.758.1431
  300. Wood, T.J., Patiny, S. & Bossert, S. (2022a) An unexpected new genus of panurgine bees (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) from Europe discovered after phylogenomic analysis. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 89, 183–210. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.89.72083
  301. Wood, T.J., Molina, F.P. & Bartomeus, I. (2022b) A new Andrena species (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) from the overlooked Doñana Protected Areas of southern Spain. Belgian Journal of Entomology, 126, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.47446/OSMIA10.1
  302. Wood, T.J., Hogan, J., Edwards, M., Paxton, R.J., Praz, C., Seidel, M. & Schmid-Egger, C. (2022c) Andrena scotica Perkins is the valid name for the widespread European taxon previously referred to as Andrena carantonica Pérez (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 35, 393–408.
  303. Zanden, G. van der (1988) Beitrag zur Systematik und Nomenklatur der paläarktischen Osmiini, mit Angaben über ihre Verbreitung. Zoologische Mededelingen, 62 (9), 113–133.
  304. Zanden, G. van der (1989) Neue oder wenig bekannte Arten und Unterarten der palaearktischen Megachiliden (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apoidea: Megachilidae). Entomologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden, 53, 71–86.
  305. Zattara, E.E. & Aizen, M.A. (2021) Worldwide occurrence records suggest a global decline in bee species richness. One Earth, 4 (1), 114–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2020.12.005
  306. Zhang, J.-J., Kapli, P., Pavlidis, P. & Stamatakis, A. (2013) A general species delimitation method with applications to phylogenetic placements. Bioinformatics, 29 (22), 2869‒2876. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btt499