Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2023-11-24
Page range: 595-600
Abstract views: 125
PDF downloaded: 8

The immature stages and female imago of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) sirventorum Andersen & Mendes, 2012, a Neotropical member of the chalybeatus species group (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae)

Laboratory of Systematics of Diptera; Department of Ecology and Zoology; Federal University of Santa Catarina; Florianópolis; Brazil
Department of Natural History; University Museum of Bergen; University of Bergen; P.O. Box 7800; NO-5020 Bergen; Norway
Diptera Neotropical region taxonomy Orthocladiinae Rheocricotopus Psilocricotopus chalybeatus species group new record key


The female, larva and pupa of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) sirventorum Andersen & Mendes, 2012, are described based on specimens collected in southern Brazil. The species is the sole described species of Rheocricotopus Brundin, 1956 from the Neotropical region. The subgeneric placement is confirmed, based on the morphology of the female, larva and pupa. The species belongs in the chalybeatus species group, and a key to the pupae of the group is presented.



  1. Andersen, T. & Mendes, H.F. (2012) A new species of Rheocricotopus Brundin from Mato Grosso, Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae). Biota Neotropica, 12, 111–115.
  3. Andersen, T., Sæther, O.A., Cranston, P.S. & Epler, J.H. (2013) 9. The larvae of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chinronomidae) of the Holarctic region – Keys and diagnoses. In: Andersen, T., Cranston, P.S. & Epler, J. (Eds.), Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic Region, Keys and diagnoses, Part 1 Larvae. Insect Systematics and Evolution, Suppl. 66. Scandinavian Entomology, Sandby, pp. 189–386.
  4. Ashe, P. & O’Connor, J.P. (2012) A world catalogue of Chironomidae (Diptera). Part 2A & 2B. Orthocladiinae. Irish Biogeographical Society and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, 968 pp.
  5. Caspers, N. (1987) Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) notabilis spec. nov. from Portugal (Diptera, Nematocera, Chironomidae). Aquatic Insects, 9 (3), 169–175.
  6. Chaudhuri, P.K. & Sinharay, D.C. (1983) A study on Orthocladiinae (Diptera, Chironomidae) of India. The genus Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch. Entomologica Basiliensia, 8, 398–407.
  7. Epler, J.H. (1988) Biosystematics of the genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) of the world. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society, 36, 1–214. Available from: (Accessed 1 October 2023)
  8. Hazra, N. & Chaudhuri, P.K. (2004) A new orthoclad species of Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 27 (2), 1–4.
  9. Johannsen, O.A. (1932) Orthocladiinae of the Malayan subregion of the Dutch East Indies. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement, 9, 715–732.
  10. Liu, W., Lin, X. & Wang, X. (2014a) A review of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae). ZooKeys, 388, 17–34.
  11. Liu, W.B., Song, C. & Wang, X.H. (2014b) Review of the subgenus Rheocricotopus (s. str.) Brundin, 1956 from China (Diptera: Chironomidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 90 (2), 100–106.
  12. Makarchenko, E.A. & Makarchenko, M.A. (2005) Khironomidy roda Rheocricotopus Thienemann et Harnisch, 1932 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) rossiiskogo Dal′nego Vostoka (Chironomids of the genus Rheocricotopus Thienemann et Harnisch, 1932 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) of the Russian Far East). Evraziatskii Entomologicheskii Zhurnal, 4 (2), 125–136.
  13. Moubayed-Breil, J. (2016) Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) meridionalis sp. n. and R. (Psc.) thomasi sp. n., two crenophilous species inhabiting cold helocrenes and streams in the Mediterranean Region [Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae]. Ephemera, 16 (2), 71–91.
  14. Moubayed-Breil, J. & Ashe, P. (2019) Rheocricotopus (s. str.) costai sp. n. and R. (s. str.) pyrenaeus sp. n., two relict species from glacial rheocrenes and streams in Corsica and the eastern Pyrenees (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae). Trakya University Journal of Natural Sciences, 20 (1), 35–46.
  15. Ospina-Torres, R., Riss, W. & Ruiz, J.L. (1999) Guía para la identificatión genérica de larvas de quironomidos (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) de la Sabana de Bogotá. I. Subfamilia Orthocladiinae. In: Amat-G., G., Andrade-C., M.G. & Fernández, F. (Eds.), Insectos de Colombia II. Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Colección Jorge Alvarez Lleras, No. 13, Bogotá, pp. 363–384.
  16. Prat, N., Acosta, R., Villamarín, C. & Rieradevall, M. (2011) Guia para el reconocimiento de las larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera) de los ríos altoandinos de Ecuador y Perú. Clave para la determinación de los principales morfotipos larvários. Grupo de Investigación F.E.M., Departamento de Ecología, Universidad de Barcelona, 78 pp. Available from: (Accessed 1 October 2023)
  17. Roback, S.S. & Coffman, W.P. (1983) Results of the Catherwood Bolivian-Peruvian Altiplano Expedition part II. Aquatic Diptera including montane Diamesinae and Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae) from Venezuela. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 135, 9–79.
  18. Roque, F.O., Trivinho-Strixino, S., Milan, L. & Leite, J.G. (2007) Chironomid species richness in low-order streams in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: a first approximation through a Bayesian approach. Journal of North American Benthological Society, 26, 221–231.
  19. https:// 3593(2007)26[221:CSRILS]2.0.CO;2
  20. Sæther, O.A. (1980) Glossary of Chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement, 14, 1–51.
  21. Sæther, O.A. (1986) A review of the genus Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch, 1932, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae). In: Fittkau, E.J. (Ed.), Beiträge zur Systematik der Chironomidae, Diptera. Spixiana, Supplement, 11, 59–108.
  22. Sasa, M. (1990) Studies on the chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) of the Nansei Islands, southern Japan. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, 60 (3), 111–165.
  23. Sasa, M. (1991) Annex studies on the chironomids of some rivers and lakes in Japan. Part 2. Studies on the chironomids of the Lake Towada area, Aomori. In: Some characteristics of nature conservation within the chief rivers in Toyama Prefecture (The upper reach of Jyoganji River, Hayatsuki River and Katakai River). Research Report Toyama Prefectural Environmental Pollution Research Center, 1991, 68–81.
  24. Sasa, M. & Suzuki, H. (2000) Studies on the chironomid species collected on Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands, Southwestern Japan. Tropical Medicine, 42 (1), 1–37.
  25. Spies, M., Andersen, T., Epler, J.H. & Watson, C.N. Jr (2009) Chironomidae (Non-biting Midges). In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Volume 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp. 437–480.
  26. Trivinho-Strixino, S. (2011) Larvas de Chironomidae. Guia de Identificação. Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Hidrobiologia, Laboratório de Entomologia Aquática. São Carlos, 371 pp.
  27. Wang, X. & Sæther, O.A. (2001) Two new species of the orientalis group of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) from China (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hydrobiologia, 444, 237–240.
  28. Wang, X. & Zheng, L. (1989) Two new species of the genus Rheocricotopus from China (Diptera:Chironomidae). Entomotaxonomia, 11 (4), 311–313. [In Chinese with English summary].
  29. Wang, X. & Zheng, L. (1991) Notes on the genus Rheocricotopus from China (Diptera: Chironomidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 16 (1), 99–105. [In Chinese with English summary]
  30. Wang, X., Yan, C. & Maa, C. (2004) A new Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnischia (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Taiwan Province, China. Entomologia Sinica, 11 (3), 239–242.