Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2023-11-24
Page range: 515-532
Abstract views: 162
PDF downloaded: 17

Hidden treasures of Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil: New records and two new species of Raspailiidae (Porifera, Demospongiae)

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal; Instituto de Biociências; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Avenida Bento Gonçalves; 9500 – Bloco IV – Prédio 43433 – sala 214 Porto Alegre-RS – CEP 91501-970; Rio Grande do Sul—Brasil
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal; Instituto de Biociências; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Avenida Bento Gonçalves; 9500 – Bloco IV – Prédio 43433 – sala 214 Porto Alegre-RS – CEP 91501-970; Rio Grande do Sul—Brasil; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Campus Litoral Norte; Centro de Estudos Costeiros; Limnológicos e Marinhos; Av. Tramandai; 976; Imbé; CEP 95.625-000; RS—Brasil
Porifera Heteroscleromorpha Southwestern Atlantic Ocean Bahia Sponge Taxonomy


Currently one species of Cyamon Gray, 1867 and one species of Thrinacophora Ridley, 1885 are reported from the Brazilian coast: Cyamon agnani (Boury- Esnault, 1973) and Thrinacophora funiformis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) respectively. We describe two new sponge species from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil: Cyamon pedroalcoladoi sp. nov. and Thrinacophora melae sp. nov. . The specimens were found in shallow waters (2–3 m), on the sandy bottom with biodetritus. Cyamon perdroalcoladoi sp. nov. has unique spiculation consisting of two kinds of strongyles, five kinds of styles and two kinds of polyactine spicules. Thrinacophora melae sp. nov. is characterized by only one size of strongyles and raphides, and three kinds of styles. Also, the first record of Cyamon agnani from the state of Bahia—726 km north of the type locality—Espírito Santo, Brazil), a plate of spicule set from Western Atlantic species of Cyamon and the redefinition of both genera are included. Taxonomic keys, comparative tables of spicules and the geographic and bathymetric distributions from Western Atlantic Cyamon species and World Thrinacophora are presented.



  1. Alcolado, P.M. (2002) Catálogo de las esponjas de Cuba. Avicennia, 15 (53), 72.
  2. Arndt, W. (1927) Kalk- und Kieselschwämme von Curaçao. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 25, 133–158.
  3. Arnesen, E. (1920 [1932]) Spongia. Report on the Scientific Results of the “Michael Sars” North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition, 1910, 3 (II), 1–29.
  4. Boury-Esnault, N. (1973) Résultats Scientifiques des Campagnes de la ‘Calypso’. Campagne de la ‘Calypso’ au large des côtes atlantiques de l’Amérique du Sud (1961–1962). I. 29. Spongiaires. Annales de l’Institut océanographique, 49 (Supplement 10), 263–295.
  5. Bowerbank, J.S. (1864) A Monograph of the British Spongiadae, Vol. 2. Ray Society, London, i–xx, 1–388.
  6. Brøndsted, H.V. (1924 [1923]) Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914-16. XV. Sponges from the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn, 75, 117–167.
  7. Carter, H.J. (1876) Descriptions and Figures of Deep-Sea Sponges and their Spicules, from the Atlantic Ocean, dredged up on board H.M.S.‘Porcupine’, chiefly in 1869 (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (4) 18 (105), 226–240; (106), 307–324; (107), 388–410; (108), 458–479.
  8. Carter, H.J. (1880) Report on Specimens dredged up from the Gulf of Manaar and presented to the Liverpool Free Museum by Capt.W.H. Cawne Warren. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (5) 6 (31), 35–61.
  9. de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez, B., Boury-Esnault, N., Carballo, J.L., Cárdenas, P., Díaz, M.-C., Dohrmann, M., Downey, R., Hajdu, E., Hooper, J.N.A., Kelly, M., Klautau, M., Manconi, R., Morrow, C.C., Pisera, A.B., Ríos, P., Rützler, K., Schönberg, C., Vacelet, J. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (2023) World Porifera Database. Available from: (accessed 3 March 2023) https://doi:10.14284/359
  10. Dendy, A. (1922) Report on the Sigmatotetraxonida collected by H.M.S. ‘Sealark’ in the Indian Ocean. In: Reports of the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, Vol. 7. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 18 (1), 1–164.
  11. Dickinson, M.G. (1945) Sponges of the Gulf of California. In: Reports on the collections obtained by Alan Hancock Pacific Expeditions of Velero III off the coast of Mexico, Central America, South America, and Galapagos Islands in 1932, in 1933, in 1934, in 1935, in 1936, in 1937, in 1939, and 1940. The University of Southern California Press, Los Angeles, pp. 1–55.
  12. Fernandez, J.C.C., Peixinho, S., Pinheiro, U.S. & Menegola, C. (2011) Three new species of Tetilla Schmidt, 1868 (Tetillidae, Spirophorida, Demospongiae) from Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 2978, 51–67.
  13. Grant, R.E. (1836) Animal Kingdom. In: Todd, R.B. (Ed.), The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. Vol. 1. (Sherwood,Gilbert, and Piper: London), 1–813.
  14. Gray, J.E. (1867) Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges, with the Descriptions of some New Genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1867 (2), 492–558, 54.
  15. Hadju, E., Peixinho, S. & Fernandes, J.C.C. (2011) Esponjas Marinhas da Bahia: Guia de campo e laboratório. Série Livros 45. Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 276 pp.
  16. Hentschel, E. (1912) Kiesel- und Hornschwämme der Aru- und Kei-Inseln. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 34 (3), 293–448.
  17. Higgin, T. (1877) Description of some sponges obtained during a cruise of the steam-yacht ‘Argo’ in the Caribbean and neighbouring seas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (4) 19, 291–299.
  18. Hooper, J.N.A. (1991) Revision of the family Raspailiidae (Porifera: Demospongiae), with description of Australian species. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 5 (6), 1179–1418.
  19. Hooper, J.N.A. (2002) Family Raspailiidae Hentschel, 1923. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera. Guide to the classification of sponges. Vol. 1. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow, pp. 469–510.
  20. Kieschnick, O. (1896) Silicispongiae von Ternate nach den Sammlungen von Herrn Prof. Dr. W. Kükenthal. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 19 (520), 526–534.
  21. Lage, A., Carvalho, M. & Menegola, C. (2013) Two new species of Halichondrida (Demospongiae) and the first record of Phycopsis and Ciocalapata for Brazil. Zootaxa, 3734 (2), 292–300.
  22. Laubenfels, M.W. de (1930) The Sponges of California. (Abstracts of dissertations for the degree of doctor of philosophy. Stanford University Bulleti, 5 (98), 24–29.
  23. Laubenfels, M.W. de (1936) A Discussion of the Sponge Fauna of the Dry Tortugas in Particular and the West Indies in General, with Material for a Revision of the Families and Orders of the Porifera. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication, 467 (Tortugas Laboratory Paper), 30, 1–225.
  24. Laubenfels, M.W. de (1950) The porifera of the Bermuda archipelago. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 27 (1), 1–154.
  25. Lévi, C. (1953) Sur une nouvelle classification des Démosponges. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des séances de l’Académie des sciences, Paris, 236 (8), 853–855.
  26. Little, F.J. (1963) The sponge fauna of the St. George’s Sound, Apalache Bay, and Panama City Regions of the Florida Gulf coast. Tulane Studies in Zoology, 11 (2), 31–71.
  27. Macola, R. & Menegola, C. (2021) A new species of Placospongia Gray, 1867 (Porifera, Demospongiae, Placospongiidae) and new record of P. ruetzleri van Soest, 2017 from Northeast, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5072 (1), 12–22.
  28. Menegola, C., Garcia Santos, G.J., Moraes, F. & Muricy, G. (2011) Three new species of Strongylacidon (Chondropsidae: Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae) from north-east Brazil, with new morphological characters for the family. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (Print), 1, 1–9.
  29. Mothes, B., Santos, C.P. & Campos, M.A. (2004) Timea bioxyasterina sp. n., a new species from the Northeastern coast of Brazil (Demospongiae, Hadromerida). Zootaxa, 443, 1–8.
  30. Muricy, G., Lopes, D.A., Hajdu, E., Carvalho, M.S., Moraes, F.C., Klautau, M., Menegola, C. & Pinheiro, U. (2011) Catalogue of Brazilian Porifera. Museu Nacional, Série Livros 46, 300 pp.
  31. Nardo, G.D. (1833) Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien,wonach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist: 519–523.
  32. Ridley, S.O. (1885) Monaxonida. In: Tizard, T.H., Moseley, H.N., Buchanan, J.Y. & Murray, J. 1885 Narrative of the cruise of H.M.S. Challenger, with a general account of the scientific results of the Expedition. Reports of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the Challenger, 1 (1–2), 569–573.
  33. Ridley, S.O. & Dendy, A. (1886) Preliminary report on the Monaxonida collected by H.M.S. Challenger. Part I. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 18, 325–351, 470–493.
  34. Rützler, K., Van Soest, R.W.M. & Piantoni, C. (2009) Sponges (Porifera) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder, D.L. & Camp. D.K. (Eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters and Biota. Biodiversity, Texas A & M Press, College Station, Texas, pp. 285–313.
  35. Sim, C.J. & Bakus, G.J. (1986) Marine Sponges of Santa Catalina Island, California. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation, 5, 1–23.
  36. Sollas, W.J. (1885) A Classification of the Sponges. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (5) 16 (95), 395.
  37. Topsent, E. (1889) Quelques spongiaires du Banc de Campêche et de la Pointe-à-Pître. Mémoires de la Société zoologique de France, 2, 30–52.
  38. Topsent, E. (1894) Application de la taxonomie actuelle a une collection de spongiaires du Banc de Campeche et de la Guadeloupe decrite precedemment. Memoires de la Societe Zoologique de France, 7, 27–36.
  39. Van Soest, R.W.M. (1984) Marine sponges from Curaçao and other Caribbean localities. Part III. Poecilosclerida. In: Hummelinck, P.W. & Van der Steen, L.J. (Eds.), Uitgaven van de Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen. No. 112. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands, 66 (199), 1–167.
  40. Van Soest, R.W.M. (2017) Sponges of the Guyana Shelf. Zootaxa, 4217 (1), 1–225.
  41. Van Soest, R., Carballo, J.L. & Hooper, J. (2012) Polyaxone monaxonids: revision of raspailiid sponges with polyactine megascleres (Cyamon and Trikention). ZooKeys, 239, 1–70.
  42. Wilson, H.V. (1902 [1900]) The sponges collected in Porto Rico in 1899 by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer Fish Hawk. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, 2, 375–411.