Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2024-02-01
Page range: 577-590
Abstract views: 108
PDF downloaded: 5

Three new species of sea star parasite Dendrogaster (Crustacea: Thecostraca) from Japan

Suido-sha Co. Ltd.; 8-11-11 Ikuta; Tama-ku; Kawasaki; Kanagawa 214-0038; Japan
Marine Biological Laboratory; Toba Aquarium; 3-3-6 Toba; Toba; Mie 517-8517; Japan
Yabitsu Shellfish Museum / Yuasa Castle Marine Biological Museum; Miyazaki-cho; Arida; Wakayama 649-0316; Japan
Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life; Hiroshima University; 1-4-4 Kagamiyama; Higashi-Hiroshima; Hiroshima 739-8528; Japan
Crustacea Asteriidae bathyal zone Dendrogastridae Echinasteridae endoparasite Goniasteridae Kumano-nada Sea


Three new species of ascothoracidan crustaceans, Dendrogaster danni sp. nov., Dendrogaster tanabensis sp. nov., and Dendrogaster jinshomaruae sp. nov. are described from the sea around the Kii Peninsula on the Pacific coast of central Japan. They are found in the coelomic cavities of the sea stars, Neoferdina japonica Oguro & Misaki, 1986., Henricia sp., and Coronaster volsellatus (Sladen, 1889), respectively. Morphological examinations and DNA barcoding analyses of these new species are reported in this study. The emergence of Dendrogaster from their host sea stars is also noted. These findings represent the 11th to 13th species of Dendrogaster that infest Japanese sea stars.



  1. Achituv, Y. (1971) Dendrogaster asterinae n. sp., an ascothoracid (Cirripedia) parasite of the starfish Asterina burtoni of the Gulf of Elat. Crustaceana, 21, 1–4, pl. 1.
  2. Bucklin, A., Steinke, D. & Blanco-Bercial, L. (2011) DNA barcoding of marine metazoa. Annual Review of Marine Science, 3, 471–508.
  3. Fisher, W.K. (1905) New starfishes from deep water off California and Alaska. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, 24, 291–320.
  4. Fisher, W.K. (1906) Two new starfishes from Monterey Bay, California. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 30 (10), 299–302.
  5. Fisher, W.K. (1911) Asteroidea of the North Pacific and adjacent waters. Part I. Phanerozonia and Spinulosa. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 76 (1), i–iv + 1–419, pls. 1–122.
  6. Fisher, W.K. (1913a) Four new genera and fifty-eight new species of starfishes from the Philippine Islands, Celebes, and the Moluccas. Proceedings of the US National Museum, 43, 599–648.
  7. Fisher, W.K. (1913b) 1. A new species of Echinaster, with a note on the name Othilia. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 42 (5), 193–196.
  8. Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.
  9. Goto, S. (1914) A descriptive monograph of Japanese Asteroidea. 1. Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, 29, 1–808, pls. 1–19.
  10. Gray, J.E. (1840) XXXII. A synopsis of the genera and species of the class Hypostoma (Asterias, Linnaeus). Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, 6, 275–290.
  11. Gruvel, A. (1905) Monographie des Cirrhipédes ou Thécostracés. Masson et Cie, Éditeurs, Paris, 472 pp.
  12. Grygier, M.J. (1982) Dendrogaster (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) from California: sea-star parasites collected by the Albatross. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 42, 443–454.
  13. Grygier, M.J. (1987) Antarctic records of asteroid-infesting Ascothoracida (Crustacea), including a new genus of Ctenosculidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 100, 700–712.
  14. Grygier, M.J. (1988) Unusual & mostly cysticolous crustacean, molluscan, and myzostomidan associates of echinoderms. In: Burke, R.D., Mladenov, P.V., Lambert, P. & Parsley, R.L. (Eds.), Echinoderm Biology: Proceedings of the Sixth International Echinoderm Conference. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 775–784.
  15. Grygier, M.J. (1992) Laboratory rearing of ascothoracidan nauplii (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) from plankton at Okinawa, Japan. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 35, 235–251.
  16. Grygier, M.J. (1996) A world list of coral reef-associated Ascothoracida (Crustacea), with remarks on Lauridae, Petrarcidae, and Dendrogastridae from Okinawa, Japan. Galaxea, 13, 15–33.
  17. Grygier, M.J. (2023) World Ascothoracida Database. Dendrogaster Knipovich, 1890. Accessed through World Register of Marine Specie. Available from: (accessed 21 October 2023)
  18. Grygier, M.J. & Høeg, J.T. (2005) Ascothoracida (ascothoracids). In: Klaus, R. (Ed.), Marine Parasitology. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia and CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 149–154.
  19. Hajibabaei, M., Singer, G.A.C., Hebert, P.D.N. & Hickey, D.A. (2007) DNA barcoding: how it complements taxonomy, molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. Trends in Genetics, 23, 167–172.
  20. Hamel, J.-F. & Mercier, A. (1994) New distribution and host record for the starfish parasite Dendrogaster (Crustacea: Ascothoracida). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 419–425.
  21. Hamel, J.-F. & Mercier, A. (1999) Dendrogaster. Autopsie d’un parasite peu commun. Le Naturaliste Canadien, 123 (Hiver 1999), 55–57.
  22. Hayashi, R. (1952) Sea-stars of Seto and adjacent waters. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 2 (2), 143–159.
  23. Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S. & de Waard, J.R. (2003) Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 270, S96–S99.
  24. Imaoka, T., Irimura, S., Okutani, T., Oguro, C., Oji, T., Shigei, M. & Horikawa, H. (1990) Echinoderms from Continental Shelf and Slope around Japan Vol. 1—Fiscal 1989 Project Entrusted by the Fisheries Agency of Japan. Japan Fisheries Resource Conservation Association, Tokyo, 159 pp. [parallel texts in Japanese and English]
  25. Jimi, N., Kobayashi, I., Moritaki, T., Woo S.P., Tsuchida, S. & Fujiwara, Y. (2023) Insights into the diversification of deep-sea endoparasites: Phylogenetic relationships within Dendrogaster (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) and a new species description from a western Pacific seamount. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 196, 104025.
  26. Jimi, N., Moritaki, T. & Kajihara, H. (2017) Rare endoparasitic Asteriomyzostomum (Annelida: Asteriomyzostomidae) from Japan, including three new species descriptions and their phylogenetic position within Myzostomida. Parasitology International, 66 (6), 841–847.
  27. Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.
  28. Knipovich, N. (1890) [Dendrogaster astericola nov. g. et sp., a new form of parasitic Cirripedia of the group Ascothoracida: Preliminary report]. Vestnik Estestvoznaniya, 1 (18), 353–357. [in Russian]
  29. Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. (2016) MEGA 7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33, 1870–1874.
  30. Le Roi, O. (1905) Zwei neue parasitische Cirripedien aus der Gruppe der Ascothoracida. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 29, 399–401.
  31. Le Roi, O. (1907) Dendrogaster arborescens und Dendrogaster ludwigi, zwei entoparasitische Ascothoraciden. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 86, 100–133, pls. VII–VIII.
  32. Linnaeus, C. (1767) n.k. In: Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Vol. 1. 12th Edition. Regnum Animale. 1 & 2. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm], pp. 1–532 (1766), pp. 533–1327 (1767).
  33. Linnaeus C. (1771) Mantissa plantarum: Generum editionis VI. et specierum editionis II. L. Salvius, Holmiae. Vol. Mantissa [2] altera: Regni Animalis Appendix, 521–552.
  34. Moritaki, T. (2020) Collaboration between aquarium and researchers on invertebrates from the Kumano Sea. TAXA, Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology, 48, 34–40. [in Japanese with English abstract]
  35. Müller, J. & Troschel, F.H. (1842) System der Asteriden. Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig, xxx + 134 pp. 12 pls.
  36. Müller, O.F. (1776) Zoologiae Danicae prodromus, seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum: characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Typis Hallagerii, Havni, Copenhagen, 282 pp.
  37. Oguro, C. & Misaki, H. (1986) A new sea-star, Neoferdina japonica, from Japan. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology, 34, 60–64.
  38. Parelius, J. (1768) Beskrivelse over Nogle Korstrold. Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskab Skrifter, 4, 423–428, pl. 14.
  39. Saba, M., Tomida, Y. & Kimoto, T. (1982) Echinoderms fauna of Ise Bay, and the northern and the middle parts of Kumano-nada. Bulletin of the Mie Prefectural Museum, 4, 1–82. [in Japanese]
  40. Saito, N., Wakabayashi, K. & Moritaki, T. (2020) Three new species of Dendrogaster (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) infecting goniasterid sea-stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from Japan. Species Divesity, 25 (1), 75–87.
  41. Sladen, W.P. (1889) Report on the Asteroidea. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876, Zoology, 30 (51), i–xlii + 1–893, 118 pls.
  42. Vogler, A.P. & Monaghan, M.T. (2006) Recent advances in DNA taxonomy. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 45, 1–10.
  43. Wagin, V.L. (1950) [On new parasitic crustaceans of the family Dendrogasteridae (order Ascothoracida)]. Trudy Leningradskogo Obshchestva Estestvoispytateley, 70 (4), 3–89. [in Russian]
  44. Wagin, V.L. (1976) Meshkogrudye Raki [Ascothoracida]. Kazan University Press, Kazan, USSR, 141 pp. [in Russian]
  45. Yoshimoto, A., Moritaki, T., Saito, N. & Wakabayashi, K. (2020) A new species of Dendrogaster Knipowitsch, 1890 (Thecostraca: Ascothoracida: Dendrogasteridae) parasitic in the sea star Certonardoa semiregularis (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from Japan. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 40 (6), 795–807.
  46. Yosii, N. (1931) Note on Myriocladus. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Section IV (Zoology), 2, 237–349.