Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2024-02-08
Page range: 551-564
Abstract views: 6
PDF downloaded: 0

Two new species and a new record of stygobitic freshwater snails (Gastropoda, Cochliopidae) from Candela, Coahuila, northern Mexico

Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Faculty of Biological Sciences; Juárez University of the State of Durango; 35010 Gómez Palacio; Durango; Mexico
Mollusca Gastropods stygobionts shell morphology conservation North Mexico


We describe two new species and a new record of stygobitic gastropods from small groundwater-fed springs in Candela, Coahuila, northern Mexico. Phreatomascogos garciasaucedoi n. sp. is described based on shell morphology and is the second species of this formerly monotypic genus. According to the current classification, we have transferred this genus to Cochliopidea. Phreatodrobia candelensis n. sp. is described, and represents the first record of the genus in Mexico extending its known range more than one hundred kilometers to the south. Also found with the new stygosnails was Coahuilix hubbsi Taylor, 1966, which was previously known only as an endemic species from the neighboring Cuatro Ciénegas valley. The reported new subterranean snails are restricted in their distributions to two small water sources only a few meters long which flow directly into a touristic zone with swimming pools and other recreation areas. Using NatureServe Ranking, both new species were assigned as critically imperiled. The very limited distribution and negative anthropogenic impacts within the sites should draw special conservation attention for the reported stygobionts.



  1. Alvear, D., Diaz, P.H., Gibson, J.R., Hutchins, B., Schwartz, B.F. & Perez, K.E. (2020) Expanding the known ranges of the endemic, phreatic snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of Texas, USA. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation, 23, 1–17.
  2. Bogan, A.E. (1996) Phreatodrobia imitata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 1996, e.T17077A6797152.
  3. Clark, S. (2019) Cochliopidae Tryon 1866. In: Lydeard, C. & Cummings, K.S. (Eds.), Freshwater Mollusks of the World: A Distribution Atlas. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 104–109.
  4. Czaja, A., Estrada-Rodríguez, J.L. & Romero-Méndez, U. (2014) Freshwater mollusks of the Valley of Sobaco, Coahuila, Northeastern Mexico—a subfossil ecosystem similar to Cuatro Ciénegas. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 66, 459–469.
  5. Czaja, A., Estrada-Rodríguez, J.L., Romero-Méndez, U., Ávila-Rodríguez, V., Meza-Sánchez, I.G. & Covich, A.P. (2017) New species and records of phreatic snails (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Holocene of Coahuila, Mexico. Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 146, 227–232.
  6. Czaja, A., Cardoza-Martínez, G.F., Meza-Sánchez, I.G., Estrada-Rodríguez, J.L., Sáenz‑Mata, J., Becerra-López, J.L., Romero-Méndez, U., Estrada-Arellano, J.R., Garza-Martínez, M.Á. & Dávila Paulín, J.A. (2019) New genus, two new species and new records of subterranean freshwater snails (Caenogastropoda; Cochliopidae and Lithoglyphidae) from Coahuila and Durango, Northern Mexico. Subterranean Biology, 29, 89–102.
  7. Czaja, A., Becerra-López, J.L., Estrada-Rodríguez, J.L., Romero-Méndez, U., Cardoza-Martínez, G.F., Sáenz-Mata, J., Estrada-Arellano, J.R., Garza-Martínez, M.Á., Hernández-Terán, F. & Cerano-Paredes, J. (2022a) The Sabinas River basin in Coahuila—a new hotspot of molluscan biodiversity near Cuatro Ciénegas, Chihuahuan Desert, northern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 93, 1–22.
  8. Czaja, A., Covich, A.P., Neubauer, T.A., Estrada-Rodríguez, J.L., Ávila-Rodríguez, V. & Sáenz-Mata, J. (2022b) A new freshwater snail genus and species (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda, Cochliopidae) with extremely spinous shells from sub-recent spring deposits in northeastern Mexico. Zootaxa, 5169 (5), 472–480.
  9. Delicado, D., Arconada, B., Aguado, A. & Ramos, M.A. (2019) Multilocus phylogeny, species delimitation and biogeography of Iberian valvatiform springsnails (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae), with the description of a new genus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 186 (4), 892–914.
  10. Faber-Langendoen, D.L., Master, L., Tomaino, A., Snow, K., Bittman, R., Hammerson, G., Heidel, B., Nichols, J., Ramsay, L., Rust, S. & Snow, K. (2009) NatureServe conservation status ranking system: methodology for rank assignment. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. [unknown pagination]
  11. Falniowski, A. & Beran, L. (2015) Belgrandiella A. J. Wagner, 1928 (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea: Hydrobiidae): how many endemics? Folia Malacologica, 23, 187–191.
  12. Falniowski, A., Pešić, V., Lewarne, B., Grego, J., Rysiewska, A., Osikowski, A. & Hofman, S. (2021) Isolation and endemism in subterranean aquatic snails: unexpected case of Montenegrospeum bogici (Pešić et Glöer, 2012) (Gastropoda: Truncatelloidea: Hydrobiidae). Hydrobiologia, 848, 4967–4990.
  13. Geiger, D.L., Marshall, B.A., Ponder, W.F., Sasaki, T. & Warén, A. (2007) Techniques for collecting, handling, preparing, storing and examining small molluscan specimens. Molluscan Research, 27 (1), 1–50.
  14. Geiger, D.L. & Mclean, J.H. (2010) New species and records of Scissurellidae and Anatomidae from the Americas (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda). Zootaxa, 2356 (1), 1–35.
  15. Gladstone, N.S., Perez, K.E., Pieper, E.B., Carter, E.T., Dooley, K.E., Shoobs, N.F., Engel, A.S. & Niemiller, M.L. (2019) A new species of stygobitic snail in the genus Antrorbis Hershler & Thompson, 1990 (Gastropoda, Cochliopidae) from the Appalachian Valley and Ridge of eastern Tennessee, USA. ZooKeys, 898, 103–120.
  16. Gladstone, N.S., Niemiller, M.L., Hutchins, B., Schwartz, B., Czaja, A., Slay, M.E. & Whelan, N.V. (2021) Subterranean freshwater gastropod biodiversity and conservation in North America. Conservation Biology, 36 (1), e13722.
  17. Grego, J. (2018) First record of subterranean rissoidean gastropod assemblages in Southeast Asia (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pomatiopsidae). Subterranean Biology, 25, 9–34.
  18. Grego, J., Glöer, P., Erőss, Z.P. & Fehér, Z. (2017) Six new subterranean freshwater gastropod species from northern Albania and some new records from Albania and Kosovo (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Moitessieriidae and Hydrobiidae). Subterranean Biology, 23, 85–107.
  19. Grego, J., Angyal, D. & Liévano Beltrán, L.A. (2019) First record of subterranean freshwater gastropods (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Cochliopidae) from the cenotes of Yucatán state. Subterranean Biology, 29, 79–88.
  20. Hershler, R. (1985) Systematic revision of the Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda: Rissoacea) of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Coahuila, Mexico. Malacologia, 26, 31–123.
  21. Hershler, R. & Longley, G. (1986) Phreatic hydrobiids (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) from the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) Aquifer region, south-central Texas. Malacologia, 27, 127–172. []
  22. Quiñonero-Salgado, S. & Rolán, E. (2017) Navalis perforatus a new genus and new species (Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) from Spain. Nemus, 7, 7–11.
  23. Jaszczyńska, A., Falniowski, A., Prevorčnik, S., Osikowski, A. & Hofman, S. (2022) Isolation and endemism in the subterranean aquatic snails of the genus Belgrandiella A. J. Wagner, 1928 (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea: Hydrobiidae). Hydrobiologia, 850, 4089–4113.
  24. Ketwetsuriya, C. & Dumrongrojwattana, P. (2021) A new microgastropod species, Orbitestella amphaengensis, (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Orbitestellidae) from Bangkok clay of Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 69, 304–308.
  25. Masters, L., Faber-Langendoen, D., Bittman, R., Hammerson, G.A., Heidel, B., Ramsay, L., Snow, K., Teucher, A. & Tomaino, A. (2012) NatureServe conservation status assessments: factors for evaluating species and ecosystem risk. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. [unknown pagination]
  26. Osikowski, A., Hofman, S. Rysiewska, A., Sket, B. Prevorčnik, S. & Falniowski, A. (2018) A case of biodiversity overestimation in the Balkan Belgrandiella A. J. Wagner, 1927 (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae): molecular divergence not paralleled by high morphological variation. Journal of Natural History, 52, 323–344.
  27. R Core Team (2023) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. Available from: (accessed 9 January 2024)
  28. Ripley, B., Venables, B., Bates, D.M., Hornik, K., Gebhardt, A., Firth, D. & Ripley, M.B. (2013) Package ‘mass’. Cran r, 538, 113–120.
  29. Sanchez, R., Rodriguez, L. & Tortajada, C. (2018) Transboundary aquifers between Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Texas, USA: Identification and categorization. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 20, 74–102.
  30. Sasaki, T. (2008) Micromolluscs in Japan: taxonomic composition, habitats, and future topics. Zoosymposia, 1, 147–232.
  31. Seddon, M.B. (1996) Coahuilix hubbsi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 1996, e.T5026A11108043.
  32. Taylor, D.W. (1966) A remarkable snail fauna from Coahuila, Mexico. The Veliger, 9, 152–228.
  33. USFWS (2022) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2022. Species Status Assessment for the Mimic Cavesnail (Phreatodrobia imitata). Version 1.0. 28 November 2022. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin, Texas, 95 pp.
  34. WoRMS, Editorial Board (2023) World Register of Marine Species. VLIZ. Available from (accessed 6 September 2023)