Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2024-02-14
Page range: 419-433
Abstract views: 12
PDF downloaded: 4

New deep-water species of Augaptilidae (Multicrustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida) from the Arctic Ocean

Shirshov Institute of Oceanology; Russian Academy of Sciences; 36 Nakhimovsky; Prosp Moscow 117997; Russia
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology; Russian Academy of Sciences; 36 Nakhimovsky; Prosp Moscow 117997; Russia
Crustacea Copepods deep Arctic basins bathypelagic Euaugaptilus Alrhabdus


Two new species of the calanoid copepod family Augaptilidae are described from specimens collected from bathypelagic depths of the Arctic Ocean. The female of Euaugaptilus verae sp. nov. can be distinguished from other congeneric species by 1) the Md tooth arrangement, 2) the structure of Mx1, and 3) the lack of external spines on Re2 and 3 of the female P5. The female of Alrhabdus antjeboetiusae sp. nov. can be distinguished from the only species of this genus, A. johrdeae Grice, 1973, by 1) the shape of the rostrum, 2) absence of paired spinal protrusions at the posterior corners of the last pedigerous somite, 3) position of spermatheca on the genital double-somite, 4) the Md tooth arrangement, and 5) P5 endopod 1-2 lacking modified medial setae. Both species were collected in the deepest regions of the Eurasian and Canadian Basins of the Arctic Ocean in the water layers between 1000 m and the seafloor.



  1. Andronov, V.N. (2014) Phylogeny and revision of calanoid copepods system. Reviziya sistemy i filogeniya veslonogih rakoobraznyh otryada Calanoida (Crustacea, Copepoda). «Smartbooks». Russian Academy of Sciences, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Atlantic Branch. Kaliningrad, 206 pр. [in Russian with English summary]
  2. Andronov, V.N. & Kosobokova, K.N. (2011) New species of small, bathypelagic calanoid copepods from the Arctic Ocean: Brodskius arcticus n. sp. (Tharybidae) and three new species of Pertsovius n. gen. (Discoidae). Zootaxa, 2809 (1), 33–46.
  3. Auel, H. & Hagen, W. (2002) Mesozooplankton community structure, abundance and biomass in the central Arctic Ocean. Marine Biology, 140, 1013–1021.
  4. Björnberg, T.S.K. (1975) New species of marine copepods collected off South America. S. Paulo, Ciência E Cultura, 27 (2), 175–188.
  5. Boetius, A. & Purser, A. (2017) The Expedition PS101 of the Research Vessel POLARSTERN to the Arctic Ocean in 2016. Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 706, 1–230.
  6. Bogorov, V.G. (1946) Zooplankton from the collections of the expedition of the ice breaker “G. Sedov” 1937–1939. Trudy dr. eksp. Glavsevmorputi l/p “G. Sedov” in 1937–1940, 3, 336–370 [in Russian]
  7. Bradford-Grieve, J.M. (1999) The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic copepods: Families Bathypontiidae, Arietellidae, Augaptilidae, Heterorhabdidae, Lucicutiidae, Metridinidae, Phyllopodidae, Centropagidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Temoridae, Candaciidae, Pontellidae, Sulcanidae, Acartiidae, Tortanidae. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1–268.
  8. Brodsky, K.A. (1967) Calanoida of the Far Eastern seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. In: Pavlovsky, E.N. (Ed.), Keys to the Fauna of the USSR. Vol. 35. Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, pp. 1–440.
  9. Brodsky, K.A. & Nikitin, M.N. (1955) Observational data of the scientific research drifting station of 1950–1951. Hydrobiological Work, Morskoy Transport I, 404–410. [in Russian]
  10. Damkaer, D.M. (1975) Calanoid copepods of the genera Spinocalanus and Mimocalanus from the central Arctic Ocean, with a review of the Spinocalanidae. NOAA Technical Reports NMFS CIRC 391. NOAA, Seattle, Washington, 88 pp.
  11. Deevey, G.B. & Brooks, A.L. (1977) Copepods of the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda: species composition, and vertical and seasonal distribution between the surface and 2000 m. Bulletin of Marine Science, 27, 256–291.
  12. Dunbar, M.J. & Harding, G. (1968) Arctic Ocean water masses and plankton—a reappraisal. In: Sater, J.E. (Ed.), Arctic Drifting Stations: a report on activities supported by the Office of Naval Research. Arctic Institute of North America, Washington, D.C., pp. 315–326.
  13. Farran, G.P. (1926) Biscayan plankton collected during a Cruise of H. M. S. «Research», 1900. Pt. XIV. The Copepoda. Journal of Linnean Society of London, Zoology, З6, 219–310.
  14. Ferrari, F.D. & Markhaseva, E.L. (2000) Brachycalanus flemingeri and B. brodskyi, two new copepods (Crustacea: Calanoida: Phaennidae) from benthopelagic waters of the tropical Pacific. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 113, 1064–1078.
  15. Grainger, E.H. (1965) Zooplankton from the Arctic Ocean and adjacent Canadian waters. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 22, 543–564.
  16. Grice, G.D. (1973) Alrhabdus johrdeae, a new genus and species of benthic calanoid copepods from the Bahamas. Bulletin of Marine Science, 23 (4), 942–947.
  17. Grice, G.D. & Hulsemann, K. (1965) Abundance, vertical distribution and taxonomy of calanoid copepods at selected stations in the northeast Atlantic. Journal of Zoology, 146, 213–262.
  18. Harding, G.C. (1966) Zooplankton distribution in the Arctic Ocean with notes of life cycles. M.Sc. Thesis, Marine Sciences Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, 134 pp.
  19. Heptner, M.V. (1969) Systematic status of Lucicutia polaris Brodsky, 1950 (Copepoda, Lucicutiidae) and description of L. pseudopolaris sp. n. from the Polar Basin. Zoology Journal, 48, 197–206. [in Russian]
  20. Hopcroft, R.R., Clarke, C., Nelson, R.J. & Raskoff, K.A. (2005) Zooplankton communities of the Arctic’s Canada Basin: the contribution by smaller taxa. Polar Biology, 28, 197–206.
  21. Hughes, K.H. (1968) Seasonal vertical distribution of copepods in the Arctic water in the Canadian basin of the North Polar Sea. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 85 pp.
  22. Huys, R. & Boxshall, G.A. (1991) Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, London, 468 pp.
  23. Johnson, M.W. (1963) Zooplankton collections from the high polar basins with special reference to the Copepoda. Limnology and Oceanography, 8, 89–102.
  24. Kosobokova, K.N. (2012) Zooplankton of the Arctic Ocean: Community Structure, Ecology, Spatial Distribution. GEOS, Moscow, 272 pp. [in Russian]
  25. Kosobokova, K.N. & Hirche, H.J. (2000) Zooplankton distribution across the Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean: species inventory, biomass and vertical structure. Deep Sea Research I, 47, 2029–2060.
  26. Kosobokova, K.N. & Hopcroft, R.R. (2010) Diversity and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Arctic’s Canada Basin. Deep Sea Research II, 57, 96–110.
  27. Kosobokova, K.N., Hanssen, H., Hirche, H.J. & Knickmeier. K. (1998) Composition and distribution of zooplankton in the Laptev Sea and adjacent Nansen Basin during summer, 1993. Polar Biology, 19, 63–76.
  28. Kosobokova, K.N., Hopcroft, R.R. & Hirche, H.-J. (2011) Patterns of zooplankton diversity through the depths of the Arctic’s central basins. Marine Biodiversity, 41, 29–50.
  29. Markhaseva, E.L. (1996) Calanoid copepods of the family Aetideidae of the world ocean. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta RAN, 268, 1–331.
  30. Markhaseva, E.L. (1998) New species of the genus Xanthocalanus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Phaennidae) from the Laptev Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 15, 413–419.
  31. Markhaseva, E.L. (2002) Phaennocalanus unispinosus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Phaennidae): new genus, and new species from the bathypelagial Arctic Basin. Sarsia, 87, 312–318.
  32. Markhaseva, E.L. & Kosobokova, K.N. (1998) New and rare species of calanoid copepods from the central Arctic Basin (Crustacea, Copepoda). Zoosystematica Rossica, 7, 45–53.
  33. Markhaseva, E.L. & Kosobokova, K.N. (2001) Arctokonstantinus hardingi (Copepoda, Calanoida: Arctokonstantinidae): new family, new genus and new species from the bathypelagial Arctic Basin. Sarsia, 86, 319–324.
  34. Matthews, J.B.L. (1972) The genus Euaugaptilus (Crustacea, Copepoda). New descriptions and a review of the genus in relation to Augaptilus, Haloptilus and Pseudaugaptilus. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 24 (1), 1–71.
  35. Matsuura, H., Nishida, S. & Nishikawa, J. (2010) Species diversity and vertical distribution of the deep-sea copepods of the genus Euaugaptilus in the Sulu and Celebes Seas. Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 2098–2109.
  36. Milne-Edwards, H. (1840) Ordre des Copepodes. In: Histoire naturelle des Crustaces, comprenant l'anatomie, la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux, 3, 411–529.
  37. Mumm, N. (1993) Composition and distribution of mesozooplankton in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean, during summer. Polar Biology, 13, 451–461.
  38. Park, T. (1970) Calanoid copepods from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. 2. New species and new records from plankton samples. Bulletin of Marine Science, 20 (2), 472–546.
  39. Park, T. (1993) Calanoid copepods of the genus Euaugaptilus from Antarctic and Subantarctic waters. Biology of the Antarctic Seas. XXII. In: Antarctic Research Series. 58. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C, pp. 1–48.
  40. Razouls, C., Desreumaux, N., Kouwenberg, J. & de Bovée, F. (2005–2022) Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available from: (accessed 23 October 2023)
  41. Renz, J. & Markhaseva, E.L. (2015) First insights into genus level diversity and biogeography of deep sea benthopelagic calanoid copepods in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I, 105, 96–110.
  42. Roe, H.S.J. (1975) Some new and rare species of calanoid copepods from the northeastern Atlantic. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), London, Zoology, 28 (7), 295–372.
  43. Sars, G.O. (1900) Crustacea. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893–1896, Scientific Results. Vol. 1. Pt. 5. Longmans, Green and Co., London, 141 рp.
  44. Sars, G.O. (1901–1903) An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. 4. Copepoda: Calanoida. Bergen museum, Bergen, 171 pp.
  45. Sars, G.O. (1905) Liste préliminaire des Calanoïdés recueillis pendant les campagnes de S.A.S. le Prince Albert de Monaco, avec diagnoses des genres et des espéces nouvelles (2e partie). Bulletin du Musee Océanographique de Monaco, 40, 1–24.
  46. Sars, G.O. (1919) Copepoda supplement. Parts I & II. Calanoida, Harpacticoida (part). In: Sars, G.O. (1921), An account of the Crustacea of Norway, with short descriptions and figures of all the species, VII (Copepoda Supplement), pp. 1–24, pls. I–XVI.
  47. Sewell, R.B.S. (1932) The Copepoda of Indian Seas. Calanoida. Memoirs of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 10, 223–407.
  48. Schauer, U. (2008) The expedition ARKTIS-XXII/2 of the research vessel "Polarstern" in 2007. Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (Reports on Polar and Marine Research). 579. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 271 pp.
  49. Schauer, U. (2012) The expedition of the research vessel "Polarstern" to the Arctic in 2011 (ARK-XXVI/3-TransArc). Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (Reports on Polar and Marine Research). 649. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 205 pp.
  50. Schauer, U. (2016) The Expedition PS94 of the Research vessel "Polarstern" to the central Arctic Ocean in 2015. Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (Reports on Polar and Marine Research). 703. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 170 pp.
  51. Sirenko, B.I. (2001) List of species of free-living invertebrates of Eurasian Arctic Seas and adjacent deep waters. Russian Academy of Science, Exploration of the Fauna of the Sea, 51, 1–129.
  52. Sirenko, B.I., Markhaseva, E.L., Buzhinskaya, G.N., Golikov, A.A., Menshutkina, T.V., Petryashov, V.V., Semenova, T.N., Stepanjants, S.D. & Vassilenko, S.V. (1996) Preliminary data on suprabenthic invertebrates collected during RV Polarstern cruise in the Laptev Sea. Polar Biology, 16, 345–352.
  53. Tanaka, O. (1964) The pelagic copepods of the Izu region, Middle Japan. Systematic account XI. Family Augaptilidae. Publications of the Seto Marine Biology Laboratory, 12 (1), 39–91.
  54. Tanaka, O. & Omori, M. (1974) Additional report on calanoid copepods from the Izu region. Part 5. Euaugaptilus. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 21, 193–267.
  55. Virketis, M.A. (1957) Some data on the zooplankton from the central part of the Arctic Basin. Materials of scientific observations of the drift stations “North Pole 3” and “North Pole 4” 1954/55, Moscow, 1, 238–311. [in Russian]
  56. Virketis, M.A. (1959) Materials on the zooplankton of the central part of the Arctic Ocean. Results of scientific observations on the drift stations “North Pole 4” and “North Pole 5”, Moscow, 1955–1956, Moscow, 132–206. [in Russian]
  57. Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2023) World of Copepods Database. Euaugaptilus Sars G.O., 1920. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. Available from: (accessed 26 October 2023)